Methods,Materials and Techniques of ELT 2

14.An Effective Bottom-Up Strategy for Teaching English to Second Language Learners

Allamneni Sharada
Placement Officer
Vignan University

Language can be complex and full of subtleties. It is difficult to progress if one is continually burdened by having to analyze the language in one's environment in order to understand or respond to it. An effective bottom-up approach, enabling one to carry out automatic processing of the language would be the way forward if one is to reach a high level of proficiency as a speaker, listener, writer, and reader of English. Automatic processing enables one to get a handle on more of the details and intricacies of English. Michel Lewis' types of chunks (The Lexical Approach, LTP, 1993) helps practising teachers with their practical minds set on classroom applications to facilitate students in their efforts to acquire skills and thereby carry out automatic processing of the English language.

Lexical Approach is an approach to teaching languages that has not only a lot in common with the communicative approach, but also examines how lexical phrases, i.e., prefabricated chunks of language, play an important role in producing fluent speech. The lexical approach was first coined by Michael Lewis. The fundamental principle of the lexical approach is "language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar." What this means is that lexical phrases offer far more language generative power than grammatical structures. Accordingly, advocates of this kind of approach argue that lexis should move to the center of language syllabuses. Justification for this theory comes from statistical analysis of language which shows that we do indeed speak in chunks and collocations.

According to Lewis(1993) chunks include collocations, fixed and semi-fixed expressions and idioms, and occupy a crucial role in facilitating language production, being the key to fluency. An explanation for native speakers’ fluency is that vocabulary is not stored only as individual words, but also as parts of phrases and larger chunks, which can be retrieved from memory as a whole, reducing processing difficulties. On the other hand, learners who only learn individual words will need a lot more time and effort to express themselves.

A New Role for Lexis

Michael Lewis (1993), who coined the term lexical approach, suggests the following:
·         Lexis is the basis of language.
·         Lexis is misunderstood in language teaching because of the assumption that grammar is the basis of language and that mastery of the grammatical system is a prerequisite for effective communication.
·         The key principle of a lexical approach is that "language consists of grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar."
·         One of the central organizing principles of any meaning-centered syllabus should be lexis.

Consequently, it is essential to make students aware of chunks, giving them opportunities to identify, organise and record these. Identifying chunks is not always easy, and at least in the beginning, students need a lot of guidance.

Types of Lexical Units
The lexical approach makes a distinction between vocabulary-traditionally understood as a stock of individual words with fixed meanings-and lexis, which includes not only the single words but also the word combinations that we store in our mental lexicons. The advocates of lexical approach argue that language consists of meaningful chunks, that, when combined, produce continuous coherent text, and only a minority of spoken sentences are entirely novel creations.

The role of formulaic, many-word lexical units has been stressed in both first and second language acquisition research. (Richards & Rodgers, 2001) They have been referred to by many different labels, including "gambits" (Keller, 1979), "speech formulae" (Peters, 1983), "lexicalized stems" (Pawley & Syder, 1983), and "lexical phrases" (Nattinger & DeCarrico, 1992). The existence and importance of these lexical units has been discussed by a number of linguists. For example, Cowie (1988) argues that the existence of lexical units in a language such as English serves the needs of both native English speakers and English language learners, who are as predisposed to store and reuse them as they are to generate them from scratch.

Chunking for Beginners
It is often believed that that the concept of chunks is useful with more adult learners at higher levels. You need sophistication and good command of the language. As teachers of English, when we reflect on our classroom experiences, we find that this is not necessarily true. One of the first things that young learners aged 11-12, who are going to vernacular schools and taking up study of learning English as a second language  learned was that they can communicate fluently and effectively without using full sentences.

What is wrong with full sentences, one might ask. Full sentences are a real trap when learners at elementary level try to communicate. They make a lot of mistakes, in fact, they make lots of attempts (mistakes in structures and language the learners haven't been taught yet) rather than errors or slips (mistakes in structures they have been already taught).

We teachers can control the language if it is some form of controlled or semi-controlled practice; we lose control when it comes to production and communication. The danger of making a lot of mistakes (attempts) in the language our learners use to communicate with is that these faulty attempts become fossilized and, later, very hard to eradicate. A learner who for a certain period of time happily and successfully communicated using sentences like Yesterday I go to see my grandma., or If it will rain I will not  go for a walk., will one day find it very hard to switch into: Yesterday I went to see my grandma., or If it rains I will not go for a walk.,. One of the reasons being is  that old habits die hard. It will also take the teacher a long time to undo the negative effects the learner's ingenuity and creativity in using the language in free communication. Hence, the teachers might avoid genuine communication at lower levels for fear of the learners' mistakes. This can lead to allowing the students to use the target language only in artificial, limited and structured activities and exchanges, which is not very motivating.

Chunks are a perfect solution to the problem of personalization and freer expression with learners at very low levels. Teachers can have good conversations with their low level learners of any age when they use chunks. Imagine a conversation with an elementary student about his/her last weekend when Simple Past is a structure that has not been taught yet. Seems impossible, and yet a conversation like the one below could become part of a teacher’s standard practice with many of the lessons starting like this:

  • Mahesh, Your weekend… Tell me.
  • Oh, nice. Very nice.
  • Your grandmother's house?
  • Yes, in Vijayawada.
  • Went out?
  • Yes, went to the Temple.
  • And later?
  • Computer games.
  • How long?
  • 2 hours. My limit. You know.
But what happens next Mahesh takes the initiative and the conversation takes a new turn:
  • And you.
  • Oh typical.
  • Much work?
  • Well, some.
  • And then?
  • A film on TV.
  • What title?
  • Don't remember. About the II war.
  • No walk?
  • No, too lazy.

The widespread "fusion of such expressions, which appear to satisfy the individual's communicative needs at a given moment and are later reused, is one means by which the public stock of formulae and composites is continuously enriched" (p. 136).
When we analyze the conversation we can see that:
  1. communication took place
  2. both speakers, the teacher and the learner, enjoyed equal status
  3. the learner made no crucial grammar mistakes
  4. intonation was very important
  5. the length of chunks was of varying length, from single word chunks to routines
  6. the learner took the initiative
  7. the learner both made statements and asked questions.

Conversations and communication through chunks are also well received by low level adult learners, like under or even post graduate students previously from vernacular background and pursuing English as a second language. What they find attractive is that when communicating they do not often make mistakes. An adult learner will often delay engaging in conversations until he/she is sure of an error-free utterance. This may unnecessarily delay authentic communication. But, with this method, the learners quickly adjust to the idea of chunks and it helps their self esteem. They can have a perfect complete conversation and the conversation moves swiftly. They see that with the little language they have got they can communicate.

Recognizing and learning the right chunks is part of learner training and helps to form good learning habits. It is part of vocabulary learning techniques or, a term which seems more appropriate, lexis learning techniques. These techniques do not involve pure mnemonics. At their core lies what is sometimes called the collocational competence. The students need to develop the skill to select, store and retrieve chunks. Learners need to learn from the very start that words appear in a certain context or environment of words, and any attempt to ignore or rebel against it results in the learners' speaking in English instead of speaking English.

In this lexical approach, lexis in its various types is thought to play a central role in language teaching and learning. Nattinger (1980, p. 341) suggests that teaching should be based on the idea that language production is the piecing together of ready-made units appropriate for a particular situation. Comprehension of such units is dependent on knowing the patterns to predict in different situations. Instruction, therefore, should center on these patterns and the ways they can be pieced together, along with the ways they vary and the situations in which they occur.

Activities used to develop learners' knowledge of lexical chains include the following:

·         Intensive and extensive listening and reading in the target language.
·         First and second language comparisons and translation—carried out chunk-for-chunk, rather than word-for-word—aimed at raising language awareness.
·         Repetition and recycling of activities, such as summarizing a text orally one day and again a few days later to keep words and expressions that have been learned active.

·         Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context.
·         Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations.
·         Working with dictionaries and other reference tools.
·         Working with language corpuses created by the teacher for use in the classroom or accessible on the Internet

In this method, the learners have four main areas to work on. Firstly, when the students come across a new word, say take they need to write down in their exercise book or remember the whole chunk in which the word take appears, e.g. take a rest. Secondly they need to be aware that the meaning of the word take is different in You are tired. I take it and He was taken to court. Thirdly similar chunks can have different meaning although the form is the same, for example the chunk take it for granted. , as in: I take it for granted and He takes his wife for granted. These two very similar chunks in form differ in meaning and usage. Fourthly similar but not identical forms of chunks are misleading and students find it hard to recognize that small differences in form, lead to differences in meaning and usage. If they fail to do so, it leads to mistakes, for example lose weight versus lose a weight, or few were present versus the few who were present.

Lewis (1997b) suggests the following taxonomy of lexical items:
·         words (e.g., book, pen)
·         polywords (e.g., by the way, upside down)
·         collocations, or word partnerships (e.g., community service, absolutely convinced, doubtful look )
·         institutionalized utterances (e.g., I'll get it; We'll see; That'll do; If I were you . . .; Would you like a cup of coffee?)
·         sentence frames and heads (e.g., That is not as . . . as you think; The fact/suggestion/problem/danger was . . .) and even text frames (e.g., In this paper we explore . . .; Firstly . . .; Secondly . . .; Finally . . .)
Within the lexical approach, special attention is directed to collocations and expressions that include institutionalized utterances and sentence frames and heads. As Lewis maintains, "instead of words, we consciously try to think of collocations, and to present these in expressions. Rather than trying to break things into ever smaller pieces, there is a conscious effort to see things in larger and more holistic, ways" (1997a, p. 204).

Use of Collocations:
Collocation is "the readily observable phenomenon whereby certain words co-occur in natural text with greater than random frequency" (Lewis, 1997a, p. 8). Furthermore, collocation is not determined by logic or frequency, but is arbitrary and unpredictable,, decided only by linguistic convention. For example, it is correct to say to make the bed but not to do the bed; to turn on but not to open the light; sales volume but not sales amount; bread and butter but not butter and bread ; to shrug one’s shoulder but not to shrug one’s arms, etc.

Some collocations as spoken by native speakers of English are fully fixed, such as to catch a cold, bright smile, soft, silky hair, cool breeze, sunny day, boring lecture, rancid butter, spunky kid, mundane life, innocent as a lamb,, hard as nails, scared to death,   stale joke, drug addict, strutting like a cock, greedy pig , barefaced lie, strategic decision etc., while others are more or less fixed and can be completed in a relatively small number of ways, as in the following examples:

·         blood / close / distant / near(est) relative
·         learn by doing / by heart / by observation / by rote / from experience
·         badly / bitterly / deeply / seriously / severely hurt
The idea of what it is to ‘know’ a word is also enriched with the collocational component. According to Lewis (1993) ‘being able to use a word involves mastering its collocational range and restrictions on that range’. I can say that using all the opportunities to teach chunks rather than isolated words is a feasible idea that has been working well in most second language classrooms, and it is fortunately coming up in new course books that are currently being implemented in our Indian classrooms. However, both teachers and learners need awareness raising activities to be able to identify multi word chunks.

At beginners’ level, It would be advisable to simply teach in chunks, according to the usual criteria of frequency and usefulness. That we ‘have’ a meal or a bath rather than ‘make’ or ‘take’ one is essential to the elementary learner being able to express himself. Language instructors should try to raise collocational awareness to the learners, making them observe appropriate collocations, motivate them to register new vocabulary and its word partner/s, instead of recording only a single new word. The teachers should also try to give a variety of exercises and activities to reinforce the collocational. Rather than learning ever lengthening lists of new rare words, students may become more effective communicators by combining the words they already have in new and useful ways.

George Woolard in ‘Teaching Collocation’, suggests training students in the following process:
1)   Isolate key nouns in the text. Ex: curiosity, eagerness, activity, etc,
2)   Look for (unexpected) verb collocates. Ex: hanging on tenaciously, drinking greedily, crying bitterly etc.
3)   Look for (unexpected) adjective collocates. Ex: burning curiosity, bored look, smooth talk etc.
4)   Look for (unexpected) adverb collocates. Ex: devouring greedily, reading voraciously etc

What is an unexpected collocate? An adjective like ‘close’ when applied to friend, but not an adjective like ‘big’ or ‘good’ when applied with a predictable meaning. Underlining and highlighting are useful techniques here. As teachers, we will need to help out, especially at first, showing which parts of the expression are apt to change, which cannot be tampered with. Whole class discussion of what is useful or worthy or noting is a fruitful exercise. We’ll also need to check their vocabulary notebooks, to see if they are recording items correctly/appropriately. Our students could usefully record items according to key word or topic, or both. It goes without saying that tuning students into word class early on is also very important. Using certain meaningful chunks that exist in students own language, some translation can be helpful to them.


Use of Phrasal Verbs

Training students in use of phrasal verbs, through regular classroom drills is another method by which teachers could help students approximate their language usage to that of a native speaker’s speech. For example: Pick Up

Pick up – Set 1

I picked up a few words of Italian on holiday
The economy is starting to pick up
I managed to pick up a copy of that book really cheaply
Can you pick me up from the station?

Pick up – Set 2

You’re too heavy to pick up now!
Some men go to discos just to pick girls up
You can pick up a nasty cold if you go out like that
I can’t pick up that channel on my TV set

Certain pertinent points should be borne in mind while adopting the method.

Choice of Material

As both the Task-based and the Lexical approach suggest, we have to use authentic material to expose our students to rich, contextualised, naturally-occurring language.

Noticing Collocations and Dealing with Meaning                                                             

Although the extracts are authentic, we do not think students will have many problems in understanding most of the collocations, as they contain vocabulary which they probably know receptively.

Group Work        

Working in groups help fostering learning independence, and specially in vocabulary work, learners can exchange knowledge, asking others to explain unknown items.

Choice of Task

We find it vital that students are given opportunities to use the language they are learning in a realistic context. So, we need to first build awareness through noticing, and then we need to maintain contact. Because we know that revisiting aids acquisition, recycling and further practice become crucial to students actually retaining any of these neatly noticed collocates.

Some Activities to Apply the Lexical Method

Students need to recognize and be able isolate a chunk and then be able to use it correctly themselves. Asking students to select chunks from a text they are working on in class is a very good activity for learner training. The teacher, however, must check that the students select the chunks correctly, and then have them use thse chunks in new contexts created by the students. It is a test on two levels: recognition and then correct application.
Students need to be looking at patterns in a more generalisable sense. Texts are a great way into noticing collocations. The choice of text can be dependent on the students’ needs and ambitions - newspaper ads, pages and novels tend to throw up different varieties, for example. I think it’s important to let our choice be guided by what kind of English our students are going to need when choosing what to focus on - are they going to be speaking to native speakers, using English in formal situations etc. Students of general English should be exposed to a wide variety of both written and spoken texts. Drawing students’ attention to patterns, phrases and semi-fixed expressions within these texts and helping them record them effectively is important.

Sorting and matching are key techniques for students to develop. We have lots of possibilities. We can devise all kinds of card games to promote awareness of collocation.The same cards can be used over and over in a variety of ways. Students can be encouraged to make these card sets themselves, perhaps taking turns at the end of the week to select and write up the sets. These can then be stored in the classroom for early arrivals/fast finishers to access.Written exercises focusing on ‘slots’, where one or two options may not be correct are also effective, particularly where one of the options is a false friend or common miscollocate:

She likes light/weak/strong/milky tea
It rained hard/heavily/gently/strongly
Sometimes it is especially meaningful if these miscollocates can be drawn from students’ own work (without attributing them to particular students) or predicted based on our own knowledge of their language. Or we can try simple ‘gap fill’ exercises where we are careful to prompt the most appropriate slot to fill, perhaps helping students recall with additional contextual clues:
It was bitterly ___ that morning.

Besides, for students to develop their awareness of collocation, exposure to naturally occurring language is very important. So choice of materials used by us as teachers assume a very critical role in developing such kind of awareness.

Principles and Implications of the Lexical Approach

The Lexical Approach develops many of the fundamental principles advanced by proponents of the Communicative Approach. The most important difference is the increased understanding of the nature of lexis in naturally occurring language, and its potential contribution to language pedagogy.

Key Principles

Language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar.
·    The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid; much language consists of multi-words 'chunks'.
·    A central element of language teaching is raising students' awareness of, and developing their ability to 'chunk' language successfully.
·    Although structural patterns are known as useful, lexical and metaphorical patterning are accorded appropriate status.
·    Collocation is integrated as an organising principle within syllabuses.
·    The central metaphor of language is holistic - an organism; not atomistic - a machine.
·    It is the co-textual rather than the situational element of context which are of primary importance for language teaching.
·    Grammar as a receptive skill, involving the perception of similarity and difference, is prioritised.
·    Receptive skills, particularly listening, are given enhanced status.
·    The Present-Practise-Produce paradigm is rejected, in favour of a paradigm based on the Observe-Hypothesise-Experiment cycle.

Contemporary language teaching methods tend to be similar for students at different levels of competence; with the Lexical Approach, the materials and methods appropriate to beginners or elementary students are radically different from those employed for upper-intermediate or advanced students. Significant re-ordering of the learning programme is implicit in the Lexical Approach.


Empirical evidence gathered through years of research suggests that the lexical approach to teaching English as second language has indeed been highly efficacious in producing the desired learning outcomes. In this area, the work of Sinclair, Nattinger, DeCarrico, and Lewis represents a significant theoretical and pedagogical shift from the past. First, their claims have revived an interest in a central role for accurate language description. Second, they challenge a traditional view of word boundaries, emphasizing the language learner's need to perceive and use patterns of lexis and collocation. Most significant is the underlying claim that language production is not a syntactic rule-governed process but instead the retrieval of larger phrasal units from memory.

The various kinds of development will by no means persuade language trainers to abandon more traditional approaches to grammar teaching. However, they are supposed to some systematic approach to the lexical content of the course. Hence, implementing a lexical approach in the classroom will not lead to radical methodological changes. Rather, it involves a change in the teacher's mindset. Most important, the language activities consistent with a lexical approach will be directed toward naturally occurring language and toward raising learners' awareness of the lexical nature of language.


Cowie, A. P. (Eds.). (1988). Stable and creative aspects of vocabulary use. In R. Carter & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary and language teaching (pp. 126-137). Harlow: Longman.
Keller, E. (1979). Gambits: Conversational strategy signals. Journal of Pragmatics, 3, 219-237.
Nattinger, J. (1980). A lexical phrase grammar for ESL. TESOL Quarterly, 14, 337-344.
Nattinger, J., & DeCarrico, J. (1992). Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sinclair, J. M., & Renouf, A. (Eds.). (1988). A lexical syllabus for language learning. In R. Carter &
Willis, J., & Willis, D. (1989). Collins COBUILD English course. London: Collins COBUILD.
Zimmerman, C. B. (1997). Historical trends in second language vocabulary instruction. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition: A rationale for pedagogy (pp. 5-19). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
15..Teacher-Student Interaction and Language Teaching

U.Ravindra Babu
 Dr. M. Ravi Chand
Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College,
  TIRUPATI – 517 502. Andhra Pradesh

In a fast changing world, it is only normal to expect that educational standards in schools and colleges have to reflect the changing patterns of society. Schools and colleges today have to respond to this fast changing environment and develop well-informed citizens who can handle the challenges of the globalized scenario. As against the old world order where one set of skills sufficed for a person throughout his working life, today the workplace demands the flexibility in each employee to re-skill himself/herself and keep up with the advancements in various fields. We forget that rigour in learning about teaching is a necessary pre-requisite to create relevant teaching-learning experiences in the classroom. More important is to develop in students the skill of ‘learning to learn’ which will help them throughout their lives. Research suggests that children placed with the most proficient teachers make up to six times the progress of similar students in other classrooms. A teacher is the most important factor in learning outcomes. Teacher quality becomes central to system improvement.

The educational institutions should bring to common man’s table the point how our teaching-learning process is built around the expertise of the teacher, who deposits information in his/her students, and who, in turn, come close to the idea of containers of information than knowledge. The structures of our education system create the culture that we have in our classroom. The disengaging teacher is a product of our training and the decaying energies of our educational institutions. In the absence of sound educational leadership in schools and colleges, teachers flounder about pedagogical methods to be used at different class levels. The apathetic condition of our education system which is based on conventional prescription, transfer of information and competition for marks rather than on critical thinking, creativity and participation of the learner. It has also witnessed systematic intrusions of communal prejudices and gender biases and, in a way, become a medium to further the process of alienation, dehumanization and ‘othering’.

In countries such as Singapore, China, Canada, Scandinavia and the U.K., educationists regularly revisit national goals in education to establish leading institutions that nurture schools as learning organizations. The discourse in these institutions includes topics as rich as helping teachers progress from being implementers to become co-creators of knowledge with their children in the classroom. Institutional spaces are created to minimize gaps that exist in the classrooms through focused training and skills development. The most important part being that the content and nature of training is regularly redefined to watch the findings from new knowledge and changing times.

            There is a ‘sense of hollowness’, which a lot of young people today find in our institutional life. They find that nobody cares for them, the learning game is essentially a marks-examination game and the success game is essentially a game which is being played to eliminate a lot of people from the race. Thus, students do not associate purposive ness and integrity to education. There is need for a paradigmatic shift from the ‘banking or depository’ form of education where students are ‘passive containers or recipients’ to more participatory or dialogical ways. 

            On the other hand, we recognize the learner as a resource and not just a recipient of information. We do not annul the process of creativity and critical consciousness that play an important role in giving meaning to human relationships and, consequently, to education itself. The teacher is to engage with the learner as a seeker, a doer and a dreamer. Children learn by asking questions, by observing, through reading about adventure and fantasy, by playing games and recording their findings when they engage in project work. As long as teaching is perceived as an activity that is meant to prepare children to take examinations, classroom teaching will continue to be embedded in this archaic world view. If a teacher is uncomfortable with children asking questions in the classroom and if a teacher can’t integrate these questions with the content and the everyday business of teaching, it can be safely assumed that he or she has not been adequately prepared to teach.

            A teacher who doesn’t look beyond the lessons in the text book and the marks at the end of the term is not empowered to feel as a person and as a professional. Teachers are hardly ever seen using libraries or reading books that bring alive the wonders of their subject and lives of their children. Experience of teachers show us that only a minuscule number of teacher candidates have heard of or read books worth mentioning. Most teachers do not even know what constitutes children’s literature. Their familiarity with the books that inspire imagination and deep thought from publications such as NBT, CBT, Tulika and Katha is almost non-existent.   

            The present style of preparing students for exams like a finished products from a factory with no mind of their own there by stifling the process of thinking for oneself on certain day-to-day problems. In the field of science and arts getting things by rote would lead students nowhere. Einstein dubbed as a dull student by his teachers turned out to be a luminary by his ‘Theory of Relativity.’ Newton known for his absent-mindedness proved himself to be the original thinker for his ‘Theory of Gravitation.’ So also is the case of Galileo known for his keen observation discovered the Galaxy through his telescope. Calculations to the cent percent perfection can be done by computers, but thinking is the gift given to human beings different from getting things by-heart.

            Teachers are human beings too. They are as much subject to the vagaries of the institutions and social contexts they work with as any other profession. Responsible teaching involves deep engagement with knowledge, the learners, teaching methodologies and assessments for feedback and further learning. The concept of

“I see, I don’t remember
I hear, and forget
I do, I understand.” is to be borne by every teacher. The mismatch between the students and the teacher can be set right by practical knowledge of the subject. “A mediocre teacher teaches, a good teacher explains and a great teacher inspires.” If not all, at least some teachers must aspire to be classified to be great. The ancient teachers are centre stages of teaching while the modern teachers are the guides for the wayside students. This widening the gap between the teacher and the taught is due to commercial outlook on the part of teachers and mark scoring mania on the part of student and their guardians. Educational Institutions have to realize that their prestige does not depend upon a few students getting above 90 percent but on how many of their students have benefited by their overall training and more importantly, enjoyed the academic life. Parents/guardians have to be a part of the entire academic process of the student. This means more than just being part of the parents-teachers meets; grades should not determine the intelligence level of a student. Nobody deserves to be demoralized just because of something as transient as grades.

            Woe unto this pathetic scenario, unless things are set right with the acquisition of knowledge the components of which are building of character and fostering of personality. What must be explored are other talents that each child possesses. Most importantly children should be encouraged to do diverse reading. This makes them think out of the box, propels initiative and enhances perspective. Such a way of life is sure to produce a personality that knows a world beyond just marks and grades, someone who is aware of his or her other strong points and is confident of taking on life irrespective of the score in Physics or Political Science or Business Studies. We all need to take responsibility to understand and always remember that a happy and meaningful human life is much more valuable than a certificate or a few numbers.

            In 1983, Howard Gardner, a noted Harvard psychologist and educator theorized that there are multiple intelligences that dictate how children process and understand information. According to him, all individuals possess, exhibit and perceive the world in nine different and equally important ways but in a varying amount and combine and use them in different ways. He also says: “…. for any society to be successful, Intelligences have to be pluralized.” He thinks every skill possessed by a human being determines his/her area of intelligence. So, just as Linguistic Intelligence or Mathematical-Logical Intelligence enables good performance in languages and Mathematics respectively, Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence spurs performance in sports, arts and dramatics.

            Towards this goal of making a student self-reliant and self confident in facing problems of life after leaving academic portals, teachers strive to inculcate the spirit of courage to face disappointments and failures in exams in particular and life in general. Children’s/Student’s natural characteristics such as the urge to be physically active are ignored or barely tolerated. When children draw or paint, teachers criticize any departure from the stereotype scenery consisting of birds, a pair of hills and the Sun. When children commit an error while reading aloud or solving a mathematical problem, teachers jump to correct the mistake. Little do they realize that errors provide a window to the child’s mind, and only when we understand the child’s thought process can we create a sustainable capacity for self-correction.  Bill Gates is an example. He failed in entrance examination to polytechnic and this failure is a stepping stone to become one of the billionaires in the world. Winston Churchill could not clear the question paper for admission to Eton School, but pointed all the locations in the question paper. The headmaster admitted him in violation of the admission rules. Churchill was an outstanding success as war minister of Britain.

            Teachers jest for exchange of information with the students in addition to the teaching in the classroom makes them highly self fulfilled as a teacher. As a teacher, his knowledge of the subject is limited but every teacher profess to be competent within the limited range but at the same time all teachers should be willing to learn things from the campus and students that would take them to higher levels of understanding of their subjects and their students. Hence there is need to ensure that all teachers have:
Mastery of their subject and understanding of child development.
A full range of teaching strategies to address the diverse backgrounds and learning styles.
Ability to embed technology in instruction to expand classroom walls and make learning relevant.
Capacity to understand and support the vision of the school system.
Empowerment, recognition, satisfaction and success come only from being an active participant within a masterful group – a group of colleagues. A professional learning community is thus built on continual and collegial discourse about work – conversations about student evaluation, parent involvement, curriculum development and team teaching and by sharing their insights. 
            English being accepted as the major site of contestation, the “window on the world” or gateway to western knowledge. A sound English education for the rural youth in India can empower and emancipate the rural people which can lead to social mobility. The acquisition of knowledge of English duplicates itself as a tool – a “cultural capital” – in seeking wealth, position, prominence and power. Appetite grows by what it feeds on. Desire for gaining more and more knowledge of English, the gateway as it were to dominance, perpetuates itself. It got deeply and unshakably entrenched in the Indian soil on account of a willful collusion and mutual consent between the dominant British and dominated Indians.

            Teaching English is now a technical marvel of computer labs, projects, multimedia presentations, language labs, web search and the like. Teaching has become a joint venture of learning together between the teacher and the taught, where the teacher is pardonably the slower, yet a winner. One of the most powerful forces changing the roles of teachers and students in education today is the fast expanding vistas of technology. The old model of instruction was predicated on information scarcity. Teachers and their books were information oracles, spreading knowledge and enlightenment to a population with few other ways to acquire it. The world today, in contrast, is inundated with easily accessible information from a multitude of sources.

            Today’s young are part of an increasingly diverse and mobile society and are living life in an exciting time, with new technologies and myriad opportunities to be informed, educated and entertained.  The teacher and the taught are caught up in this milieu of information overload.  The role of a teacher in education has undergone a sea change all across the world.  From the old “chalk and talk practices”, teaching has morphed to inspiring children develop their abilities to think critically and creatively to benefit society.

            The day-to-day job of a teacher is more than broad casting content.  It is about crafting the content and guiding the children through engaging learning opportunities.  An educator’s most important responsibility is to search out and construct meaningful educational experiences that equip the learners to think big and solve real-world problems. The essence of education is a close relationship between a knowledgeable, caring adult and a secure, motivated child.  The teacher’s primary task is to get to know the learner as an individual in order to comprehend his unique needs. Their job is essentially about counseling the learners towards integrating their social, emotional and intellectual growth. The teacher’s guidance and support can make a difference and light the way ahead.
He is the teacher …. if it’s to be, it’s up to him
He touches the future
…. HE TEACHES!     

            Children are naturally more adept at complex problem solving activities than just memorizing facts.  They enjoy teamwork and group interaction and naturally assume leadership positions in their own niche areas.  Their almost unlimited analytical ability and their natural capacity for teamwork and leadership roles are the facets that need to be nurtured and expanded, while their natural and limited memory space gets augmented artificially into digital discs.

            Even though we are now living in the digital age that is gushing with information and dizzying possibilities, the basic and most important element of education – the human connection – has not changed.  The most wired students still need that one-on-one teacher -student relationship to learn and to succeed. Teenagers need classroom instruction, but they also want personal advice and encouragement.  They rely on compassionate teachers to guide, to tutor, to listen, to laugh and to cry with them.  This is the vital human link in the educational process that no amount of technology can improve upon or substitute.

To sum up, the teacher has to teach the children in such a way as:
Give me a fish and I eat for a day.
Teach me to fish and I eat for a life time.

Children from the above proverb benefit from instructional approaches that help them reflect on their own learning processes. When children engage in this kind of metacognitive activity, they can select appropriate strategies for problem solving. They can also serve as advocates for themselves when placed in new learning environment.


   1.  Stannard , Abel. Interactional Practices in ELT.  Orient Longman Limited: Patna, 1997.

1.      S.R. Patel. Communicative Language Teaching in English. OUP Publications: Jaipur, India, 1996.

2.      Geetha Nagaraj. English Language Teaching – Approaches, Methods, Techniques”, Orient Longman Private Limited:Hyderabad, 2008.

16. Teaching  and Learning Strategies in ELT
P.D. Satya Paul Kumar

Dr. V. Sudheer
Teaching Associates
Andhra University Campus
With the advent of globalization, with the number of software companies, B.P.O.s, Call Centres operating now in India, the opportunities for employment have increased considerably well in the country. English language which was once considered as a Second Language has come to stay as one of the Indian languages, especially for the professionals and for creating employment opportunities. It has come to be understood as a language of opportunities and a necessary tool to go up and ladder of success. The education which is the powerful tool in teaching lessons for life and learned to make a living, can usher in new trends in teaching languages.

            At present in contemporary Indian Society there is tremendous demand for English Language due to several reasons – commercial, status symbol, career promotion, academic need for students and also to understand the large world around. There is a constant search to discover or devise a reasonably good language teaching model, which would help to teach English language without too much difficulty or strain either to the teacher or learner.

            The fact that there is an internal correlation between the learners understanding  fluency and command over his mother tongue, and the learning process of target language, can help to a great extent in the creating appropriate models towards teaching/ learning the target language. English is being a powerful channel for social up-gradation in addition to cater to multiple needs of commercial, academic and career interests. There is also diligent search for easy and less odorous model of teaching /learning English keeping in view that of time and background of the learners.

The 3/4 of words mail and its telexes and cables are in English. More than ½ of the world’s periodicals, journals and media are in English. It is the language of technology from Silicon valley to Shangai. English is the medium for 80% of the information stored in the world computers. Nearly half of all business deals in the world are conducted in the English. For eg: A well known Japanese Company wishing to negotiate with its Arabic customers, arranges all business meeting in English. English is the language of sports and glamour, for Eg. Olympic Sports and games, Asian games and sports, Miss universe competitions and others. English is the voice of the air and sea Eg: Five of the largest broadcasting companies of the world (CBS, ABC, BBC, CBC & NBC) transmit their programmes in English, for more than 100 billion audiences. In present day context after the introduction of globalization, liberalization and privatization it become crucial means of communication for creating wealth. It influences the economic fortunes of the countries in the over all balance of world power. It is for India, it is used to have with people in other countries usually to promote trade and scientific, technological progress, to the benefit of global village English has undergone an inevitable process of Acculturation also called Adaptation / Domestication (Nativization), then has come to develop new form and variety of English, so it is emerged as other English (Indian English) as remarked by Narsu K. Nihlani. English as a link language, as international language having distinctly different varieties like Indian English is played as vital role, because of its growing population of English speaking community in India.

            Teaching English in India is a separate task as a second language it has a different factors to be learnt in this variety of conditions. As far as the nature of the languages of India, especially the Dravidian language are as far as its nature is  concern, they considered as inflectional languages, where as English is of analytical language type. So the teaching and learning aspects in India still under the process of achieving better result through the different teaching / learning conditions searching better alternative methodologies and approaches like communicative language teaching and so on.  

English Language learning/ teaching as a communicative art. English Language is basically vocal, verbal. English Language is initially sound, generally the sound make sense linguistically. Sounds, words, phrases and sentences at their responding stages establishes the behavioural patterns. In English the 26 letters that sounds 44 which can be produced by the organs of speech. The places of articulation and the manners of articulation, that establishes English phonological system. In the case of mother tongue like Telugu is having 56 letters can produced more than 100 sounds, because India is a tropical country, here we are able to produce more sounds rather than English, where as the basic conditions are different.  

            Language is powerful, convenient means of communication, though this we try to express our thoughts, desires, emotions and feelings. In Language knowledge is shared and can be passed from one generation to another. We have two ways of communicating experiences. 1) Linguistic communication 2) Non–linguistic communication. In Non – linguistic communication we symbolize expressive gestures, signals, flags, emblems that represent non – communicative aspects. In communication process, sender sends an idea or thought through sounds, words, phrases, sentences and the receiver try to receive the concept or idea of the sender. Idiolect (individual variety of language) that holds linguistic and non linguistic communicative act.

            Language as a social  phenomenon, (dialect that geographical or regional varieties of language, sociolect), that is also associated with social stratification, that represents the classification of spoken forms of urban and rural. In a society language as a social event establishes network of human relations. Language as a social institution, it preserves and transmits the culture of the society.


Language is basically symbolic for establishing concepts, things, ideas, objects through the system of arbitrary, vocal  symbols i.e., sounds and words. Language is system of systems. The systems are phonetics (The articulation and perception of speech sounds i.e vowels and consonants), phonology (the patterning of speech sounds of a particular language), Morphology (the formation of words), syntax (the structural formation of phrases and sentences) and semantics and pragmatics (the interpretation of words and sentences)

            Language is communicative competence. Noam Chomsky’s view of language and theory of competence deals with internalized knowledge of the system of syntactic and phonological rules of the language that the ideal speaker- hearer possesses in the native language. Communicative competence is the ability to use the language appropriate to given social context. It is the ability to say or write something which is grammatical, appropriate, fluent, formally possible, feasible and socially and contextually acceptable.

            In India, to teach / learn the English language, there is a necessity to create the parallel conditions by considering the environmental, functional, situational and structural aspects of language learning. Here we are Teaching / learning the elements of English language and experience through skills. So that, the students are exposed to the different styles of language in the curriculum and are able to pickup any one of the styles of English language as matter of choice, which suits his experience.     

Aspects of Teaching/Learning English in Present Education System

            Teaching contains planning responsibility, reciprocal to communication acts with tremendous personal satisfaction. With these objectives the teaching process will enhance the aims of teaching and learning a language in an effective manner. The prescribed subject matter is having an objective to be comprehended with the principle. So in the present day text requires context and its focus is on information support, with planning responsibility. A abstract definition that is text is in the process, compared and contrasted, illustrated the centralized points with contextual examples and support materials for the teaching and learning activity.

Conclusion :

            It is recognized by all academics that the future of the country depends upon creating a generation of English language students who will man the key position in the emerging corporate culture. Inspite of the active promotion of educational qualities by both Government institutions and private educational management, there is a drawback in terms of English Language and which should remedied at the earliest possible time. The problem English teaching / learning is aggravated by the fact that there is considerable gap between the students coming from the rural areas and those from the urban areas in terms of their performance in the language. In achieving the goals with the language in between urban/rural groups, it is observed that the weak position of those coming from the rural background inspite of their equal competence as far as knowledge is concerned. The various areas of learning and teaching language, in terms of EXPOSURE, EXERCISE AND EXPRESSION becomes a part of curriculum to remedy the deficiency of learning English as a correlative skill to knowledge. Language being a skill has to be learned only through constant conscious imitation and sustained practice. The aim of present day English language teaching is social. The process of intellectual and social learning get moulded to be educated individual. The teacher of English has the responsibility of equipping his students with the skill that they need to pursue. An interactive learning environment has potential for personalized instruction, it is interesting, motivating and challenging in the present day educational system. The teacher of English has to feel the need to provide the learner with “an acquisition rich” environment with the help of the language skills in the class room activities and language games in English. This would enhance the learners need to be equipped with skills that they require to pursue their studies with ease and to face present context of globalization for which English is a must.

References :

1.      Halliday,M.A.K (1973). Exploration in the Functions of Language. London : Edward Arnold
2.      Hilgard,E.R.& Bower,G.H.(1966). Theories of Learning . New York : Appleton Century-Crofts.
3.      Howatt, A.P.R.(1984) A History English Language teaching. London : OUP
4.      James, Carl and Peter Garret, Editors.1992 Language Awareness in the Cassroom. London : Longman
5.      Lado,R.(1964). Language Teaching : A Scientific Approach. New York : McGraw Hill.
6.      Agnihotri, R.K., and A.L.Khanna(Eds) (1985). English Language Teaching in India: Issues and Innovations. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
7.      Dua, Hans R. 1994. Hegemony of English: Future of Developing Languages in the Third World. Mysore : Yashoda Publications.
8.      French, F.G. 1963. Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford University Press.

17. An Analytical Study of ELT in India

Dr. K. Jaya Raju
            M.A. M.Ed.LLB.Ph.D.
Lecturer in English,
Govt. Degree College,
Vinukonda – 522 647,
 N. Tyagaraju
M.A. M.Phil, (Ph.D)
Lecturer in English,
Bapatla Arts & Science College,
Guntur District

ELT in India is riddled with many problems. Although the English Language Teaching Institutes at Allahabad and Hyderabad, Regional Institute of English, Bangalore, British Council and many more have done a lot to improve the English Teaching in India by producing new text-books; gramophone records; flash-cards; pictures; training teachers; popularizing structural approach of teaching English, yet there are the following problems which create uncongenial  conditions for teaching of English in the country:

(1)        Neglecting the Aims of Teaching English. The teaching of English in India is not in accordance with the aims of teaching English. Many times, neither the teacher nor the student is acquainted with the rudiments of English. The teacher only wants that his students to pass the examination. The main aims, in this way, get neglected.

(2)        Place of English in School-Curriculum. The problem of giving a proper place to English in school-curriculum is still untackled. The following questions need to be addressed:

a)                  From which class should the study of English start?
b)                  Up to which class should its study last?
c)                  Should English be a compulsory subject?
d)                 If yes, up to which class should it be a compulsory subject?

3)         Condition of Classes. The following conditions of classes hinder the smooth teaching of English:

a)                  Overcrowded classes,
b)                  Shortage of buildings,
c)                  Lack of furniture.

Due to overcrowded classes, the teacher is not able to tackle individual problems. Due to shortage of buildings and lack of furniture, students often feel inconvenient and their attention is distracted from learning.

4)         Old Method of Teaching English. In Indian schools, teachers are still using the old and faulty “Translation-cum-Grammar’ method of teaching. The new approaches – structural and situational – are not popular with our teachers. As a consequence, our students are facing all the demerits of Translation-cum-Grammar method and are devoid of advantages of new effective methods and approaches.

5)         Lack of Uniform Policy. There is no uniform policy regarding the beginning of English teaching in our schools. At present, there are three different stages at which the teaching of English is introduced:

a)         Early stage (age of 6 to 9 years) – in parts of West Karnataka, West Bengal, Rajasthan and in public schools, it starts from classes I or III.

b)         Middle Stage (age of 11 or 12 years) – In parts of West Bengal, Kashmir, Orissa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, English is introduced at the beginning of secondary education.

c)         Later Stage (age of 14 years) – In some states, e.g. Gujarat, English is taught during the last four years of secondary education.

            This hotchpotch is obviously, confusing and, as a result, slows down the rate of progress.

6)         Low Standard of Text-Books. The text-books of English are needed to be a high standard. Pointing to this problem Prof. V.K. Gokak has said, “Either because of the distribution of patronage or because of fear of charges of favouritism, a Reader which is an organic part of one series is prescribed for a certain standard and it is followed by a Reader from another series… Books are prescribed which bear no relevance to the needs of pupils at the stage”. The English Text-books need improvement in the following spheres:

Selection and graduation of vocabulary,

a)                  Good printing,
b)                  Genuine illustrations,
c)                  Suitable subject-matter,
d)                 Language and style,
e)                  Exercises and glossary,
f)                   Relevance and
g)                  Abridgement of English stories to suit Indian conditions.

In fact, the standard of text-books can be improved, if they are written by teachers teaching English in schools. In the words of Guy Boas, “The only persons equipped to choose these text-books are school-teachers who really know the fodder, suited to their flock.”

7)         Less Use of Audio-Visual Aids. In our schools, there is very much less use of audio-visual aids. Due to lack of funds, expensive aids cannot be purchased, but whatever cheap aids, e.g. pictures, charts, models, flannel-boards are available, are not used by teachers. Only during training period, some enthusiasm is found among pupil-teachers in this regard. As soon as they become teachers they shirk from using audio-visual aids. English can be best taught by using audio-visual aids and they are neglected in our schools.

8)         Lack of Effective Teachers: Prof. V.K. Gokak has said, “The fundamental years for the teaching of English in schools are in the hands of teachers who neither know enough English nor are familiar with the latest and far reaching development in the pedagogy of English”. This is very much true. There are four main reasons of the lack of effective and competent teachers:

a)                  Lack of adequate training at the B.Ed. Level.
b)                  Teachers who had not offered teaching of English at B.Ed. Level.
c)                  Lack of initiative and innovation in teachers and
d)                 Absence of right motivation as teachers are motived only to get their students through examinations. Prof. R.L. Mehta observes, “His sole aim is to get the pupils through the examination by fair means or foul. The result is the graduate who cannot write a correct sentence of English”

9)         Traditional Examination System. The new method of examination with oral and written tests is not used by teachers. They still cling to the traditional method of examination. Besides, no attempt is made to realize the real aims of teaching English through examination.

10)       Lack of Proper Teacher Education. The teachers are not trained thoroughly and properly. At the B.Ed. and L.T. levels, more periods are given to compulsory papers than to methods of teaching. At the same time, the duration of training is very short. There are also very meager provisions and facilities for in-service education.

11        Lack of Suggestive Correction: The exercise books of students lack in suggestive correction. All the exercises of students should be corrected thoroughly and the correct forms for the mistakes must be written. For instance, the pupil has written ‘sitting’. It is not sufficient to cross the word. The teacher must write ‘sitting’, so that the student can appreciate his mistake and know the correct form.

            These are some of the main problems of teaching English in India. Prof. Ronald Mackin has listed them as follows:

            “The old fashioned type of benches and desks which restrict movement; the bad light; the noise from neighbouring class which may be separated from them by nothing more than a bamboo screen, insufficient provision for their subject in the time-table, lack of aids of all kinds; interference from parents or a dominating, conservative Head-Master; and finally the requirements of an examination system which places a premium on the written language and consequently seems to favour the grammar-grinder of the old school”.

Thus, there is much to be done to improve the standard of teaching English in India.


Language class should not be a one person show and the students as well as the teachers should play multi-roles. Some times the students should be silent listeners and at other times they should be active participants. The basic and the needed skills have to be developed in Language class which acts as a stress reliever at times and a refreshing spring which makes the students ready to compete, withstand and excel in this world of rat race. And the new and emerging technology makes it possible and as a result learning and teaching will become a joyful experience.


1.         Crystal, David. Language and the Internet, Cambridge University Press, New York. 2006.
2          Crystal David. English as a Global Language,  Cambridge University Press, New York, 2003.
3.         Teaching The British council/BBC.2002

18.An Exploratory Study on the Use of L1 and the
Effect of L1 and L2  Writing
Meenakshi. B.S
EFL University

This paper reports a study of how writers use their L1(First Language) when composing in their L2 (Second Language). L2 writing research has shown that L2 writers use their first Language. (L1) while writing in L2, although the extent to which they do so clearly varies. Studies have also found that writers use their L1 while writing in their L2 for a wide variety of purposes such as planning (Uzawa and Cumming, 1989; Beware 2000; Wang, 2003) generating ideas or content (Beare, 2000; Krapels, 1990) or solving linguistic problems such as vocabulary in use (Wang, 2003.  Cumming 1989) L1 has also been reported to be used for stylistic choices and back tracking (Murphy, 2000) and for preventing cognitive overload (When and Brooks – Carson, 2000) Studies which reported L1 use were carried out for a number of reasons and for achieving various goals. Some studies focused on comparisons of L1 and L2 writing or the extent to which writers transfer their L1 strategies to L2 writing.  L1 use is seen as a strategy which L2 writers employ during L2 writing.  However writing on the same topic and having similar L2 levels and L2 writing instruction writing could cause parallelism in L1 and L2 essays (Hirose, 2003).

Despite different research goals many of the studies have attempted to relate L1 use to either L2 proficiency or text quality in some may, given their different goals. However they have produced rather conflicting results.  On the one hand several studies reported that high proficiency writers switched more between their L1 and their L2 than low proficiency writers (Wang, 2003). Cumming (1989) concluded that expert writers used their L1 frequently during word searches.  On the other hand, there are studies which have concluded more or less the opposite. Some studies reported weak writers translating more from their L1 to their L2 while writing than good writers. Sasaki (2002, 2004) found that novice writers translated more often from their L1 to their L2 than expert writers and novice writers also continued to do so over time.  Lower proficiency writers used their L1 more than the high proficiency writers. Wolfersberger (2003) found that low proficiency writers frequently used their L1 during prewriting and made use of translating from their L1 to their L2 in order to compensate for their limited ability to write in their L2.  Beare and Bourdages (2007) found that highly proficient  bilingual writers hardly used their L1 at all during L2 writing. For some writers language switching seemed out of control and L1 seemed to be more like a crutch to obtain cognitive stability.

Second Language (L2) writing research and pedagogy have been greatly influenced by the development of two theoretical perspectives, cognitive and sociocultural.  On the one hand a cognitive based approach views writing as goal oriented problem solving (Grabe and Kaplan, 1996) and emphasizes the individual process of composing and revising. A number of cognitive – oriented studies have found that expert writers use more effective planning and revising strategies than inexperienced student writers.(Cumming, 1989; Hayes and Flower,1983; Sasaki, 2000) From another perspective sociocultural theory sees writing as a social act, and emphasizes the importance of the social context in which writing is done. (Grabe and Kaplan, 1996)  The two perspectives are however considered incomparable as they are derived from different views of learning. Despite differences the two approaches can be integrated as writing is considered to be both cognitive and social in nature. The development of writing involves several factors such as L2 writing proficiency, and L1 writing expertise and ability.  Roca de Larious and Murphy (2001) studying social aspects in L2 process oriented composition research suggest three possible areas for inquiry where individual text production may be socially mediated; the writing tasks, the skilled / unskilled distinction and educational experiences.

Theoretical Foundations

Educational experiences and the role of Language Transfer in second language  acquisition has long been a very controversial topic. Some scholars have argued for the importance of transfer and considered it the paramount fact of second language acquisition. Others have been skeptical about the importance of transfer. There are a number of reasons for language teachers and linguists to consider closely the problems of transfer.  Teaching may become more effective through a consideration of differences between language  and between cultures.  Research on transfer is also important for a better understanding of the nature of language acquisition in various contexts.

Many of the problems that second language writers face may be due primarily to inexperience in reading and writing in any language. In fact there is evidence that native language literacy skills affect a number of aspects of second language performance including writing. Literacy can have a major impact on second language acquisition and a modest amount of evidence suggests that literacy interacts with transfer. Literate bilinguals may have an advantage not just because of their linguistic skills but also because of problem-solving skills that they may have acquired in the course of their education. Differences in writing systems can make the acquisition of a second language more difficult.

A high degree of literacy in one’s native language can increase the likelihood of positive transfer in recognizing cognate vocabulary.  A relation between transfer and native language  vocabulary development is evident in a study by Limper (1952). Native language literacy also seems to be a factor in success in learning to write in a second language. One particular area in which native language literacy might make an immense difference is the ability to compose for the needs of a specific audience. Individuals literate in their native language  will have a head start on some second language writing tasks. As seen from Linnarnd’s (1978) study individuals with more developed native language skills will perform better in second language writing.

There is considerable evidence that some aspects of L1 and L2 proficiency are interdependent. That is they are manifestations of a common underlying proficiency.(CUP) (Cummins 1981). The evidence reviewed in support of the interdependence hypothesis primarily involved academic or context reduced language proficiency because the hypothesis was formulated explicitly in relation to the development of bilingual academic skills.  Any language task which is cognitively demanding for a group of individuals is likely to show a moderate degree of interdependence across languages.  In addition to the interdependence between L1 and L2 cognitively demanding proficiency there is evidence that some context embedded cognitively undemanding aspects of proficiency are also interdependent across languages.

The Study
This study investigates how prior training in L1 writing affects L1 and L2 essays produced by first year university students. It also reports how ESL writers use their L1 (First Language) when composing in their L2 (Second language) and how such L1 use is affected by L2 proficiency. An analysis was made whether L1 use varied between writers and whether it was related to general writing proficiency and L2 proficiency. The following research questions guided this exploratory study.

1.      Do writers use their L1 for planning and conceptual activities while writing in  L2?    
2.      Is L1 use while writing in L2 influenced by general writing proficiency and L2 proficiency?
The first question is this study focused on how the students use their L1 while either generating ideas or planning the essay while writing in L2. The second question looked at the structural components of the essays including their organization and cohesion in order to determine what effects being literate in the L1 has on L2 proficiency  while examining the effect of transfer of skills, and the use of strategies from. L1 to L2.



Twenty participants were asked to write two essays each, one in the L1, i.e. Marathi and one in the L2, English.  The study took place during their first semester at college and their average age was 17 years. They were selected based on their prior L1 writing experience. All the students had prior writing experience in their L1, that is marathi. Some of them had studied marathi as one of their languages in school while some others had studied in marathi as a medium of instruction in school. All participants had received some L1 writing instruction and experience in elementary, secondary or high school classes.

Data Collection

Each participant wrote two essays of which one was a marathi essay and one an English essay of about 250 words each.  In both the tasks students were required to write essays of the same length i.e 250 words in about 45 minutes. The same word and time limits were set for the two writing tasks in order to enhance the comparability between the writers and the tasks. The topic for the essay was students views on the advantages of technology. The prompt for the task was ‘Does modern technology make life convenient or was life better when technology was simpler?’


After they completed the writing the participants were interviewed by the researcher in English about their composing processes and about their L1 and L2 writing background.  They were asked about the kinds of writing they had done over the years and the kinds of meta-knowledge they had acquired. Each interview session lasted between 20 and 30 minutes and was spread over a period of two days. The interview data was used primarily as a secondary source of information to confirm and supplement the analysis of essays.

Data Analysis 

The essays were first analyzed in terms of how the writers chose to frame their responses to the topics, the organizational forms and overall structure of the essays.  Main components identified in the analysis of the overall structure of the essays included position statements general statements and thesis statements. Other major components include reasons and illustrations. Different kinds of discourse markers which provide logical connections among the parts of the essays were identified and categorized in terms of the text level to which they related.  There were overall meta-discourse markers such as ‘There is no doubt that…’, partial meta-discourse markers, connecting paragraphs such as Firstly.., Secondly.., and inter sentential markers connecting two sentences such as Although.., But when there are advantages then there may be..’ Appendices show sample essay in L1 and in L2.

It was revealed through the interviews that most students used L1 in the composing process. The interview results also provided evidence for the possibility of transfer across languages. Though knowledge and skills related to organization and coherence were transferred in both directions,  obscure sentence patterns were probably transferred from Marathi to English. Of all the composing activities, students used the L1 most for text generating activities. Linguistic  knowledge is L2 dominant since more L2 is involved in sentence construction than L1.  But thoughts surfacing in the idea – generating and idea – organizing activities are L1 dominant. The use of L1 can be an efficient and effective strategy while composing in L2.

In this study ESL writing by students in english was judged by the researcher, a teacher of  English and the same students writing in their native language, marathi was judged by the researcher’s colleague a native speaker of marathi..  Considerable consistency was found in both the raters judgments.  The most favorably judged essays in English and marathi were generally written by the same students and the least favorably judged essays in English were written by the students whose marathi essays were also judged least favorably.


Analyzing essays written in both L1 and L2 by students and data collected through interviews this study was undertaken to gain knowledge of cognitive writing processes and transferability of writing across languages.  In particular, it was found that instruction in L1 could provide a basis for constructing texts both in L1 and L2.

The findings of this study also suggest that the use of discourse markers are commonly shared by both marathi and English writing.  The findings also suggest that the higher level writers tend to depend less often on the L1 than the lower-level writers.  Less proficient writers construct sentences through L1 to L2 translation, while proficient writers generate text directly in L2.  This kind of translating is in accordance with the findings by When and Menard’s study (1995) and Wang and Wen’s study (2007) where less proficient writers sought to translate, word by word, the ideas that came to their mind in their L1.  On the other hand proficient writers used translation to arrive at more precise lexical choices and vocabulary that improved the coherence and cohesion of the essays.  The participants in this study were asked to self-estimate the amount of L1 use by calculating its percentage In the interview  most students estimated their L1 use to be between 30 to 50%.  For example they thought in their L1, i.e marathi, ‘First I should analyze what is good and what is bad about technology’ ‘yes what is good is that it saves time and effort’ ‘I should give examples’ ‘But wasn’t life better when technology was simpler ….?’  The interview data also indicate that advanced L2 speakers reverted to their L1 when cognitive load became unbearable, though on the whole L1 use decreased as L2 proficiency increased.

The rating of essays by both the English and the marathi raters revealed a relation which suggests transferability of writing skills across the two languages.  It was also observed that transfer of writing knowledge did not take place in only one direction.  It seemed to be bidirectional.  The findings also provide evidence for transferability of writing competence across languages.

 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research

There are some limitations to the design of this study.  One is the small sample size.  Secondly, both tasks in this study were timed writing, so the time limit may have constrained the writing process.  There was no time at all for revision because of time pressure and so the essays which were rated were only first drafts.  This study examined the writing of learners who had writing instruction in L1 i.e. marathi.  Future research could not only include pre literate learners but also follow the process approach to writing which includes multiple drafts.


1.      Hilgard,E.R.& Bower,G.H.(1966). Theories of Learning . New York : Appleton Century-Crofts.
2.      Howatt, A.P.R.(1984) A History English Language teaching. London : OUP
3.      James, Carl and Peter Garret, Editors.1992 Language Awareness in the Cassroom. London : Longman
4.      Lado,R.(1964). Language Teaching : A Scientific Approach. New York : McGraw Hill.
19.  Teacher’s Role in the Class Room

 Asst. Professor of English,
Swarnandhra College of Engineering and Technology, 
West Godavari District.

Language is a system which is used as a means of communication. In the present scenario of liberalization, privatization and globalization, English language has become the crucial means of communication for the promotion of employment and creation of wealth. Today English is world’s widely studied foreign language. So it is axiomatic that we have to learn English language up to the mark.

A student requires good communication skills in English besides academic excellence. Then only he can meet his target of life and get opportunities for a better employment in the modern world. Till now the elite and a few sections of middle class are able to access and get benefits from education in English. But it has not percolated in to the majority of masses. So it becomes mandatory to the teacher as well as students to develop their communicative skills. Thus proficient teachers should first be trained and made available to educational institutions across the length and breadth of the country.

Spoken English plays a vital role to get the better placement for the student as the result of globalization. So we prefer teaching spoken English in the class room as a subject as it helps them to achieve prospective careers. When we teach spoken English, it is important for the student to feel comfortable. Many will feel self-conscious at first and worry about making mistakes, so the teacher has to concentrate on confidence building measures by giving the students the needed encouragement. There is an increasing demand for proficient speakers of English in the context of the increasing importance of oral communication for employment.

Spoken English is extensively used in business, industry, Government, research and education for day to day transactions. To achieve success in one’s career, it is therefore, essential to acquire an ability to speak English effectively. There has been a phenomenal increase in the demand for professionals who can train and impart English language skills. The English language trainers are not only needed by the multinational companies but also by many institutions that have a range of programs to enhance English communication skills. A vast variety of English language programs are designed to help working executives, college students, school students and house wives to move beyond the rules of grammar and ‘talk smart’.

In the present scenario, much attention is paid to English language in India. Indians have so far been learners of English and not speakers of English. It is time for the teacher and the taught to have a fresh look at English language teaching, which enables the student to realize and understand the potentiality of speaking in English. Teachers of English must train their students in spoken English by exposing them to the nuances associated with the art of speaking English i.e., ‘What to say?’ ‘When to say?’ and ‘How to say?’

In this context the teacher’s role in the classroom has transformed significantly so as to meet the present requirements. Language should be taught as a medium not as a subject, if learners develop language skills, they can communicate more effectively.

A class should be learner centered than teacher fronted. English should be taught as a medium of communication. A teacher should provide a chance to the student to read better, write better, speak and listen better. One should be concerned about developing the language skills rather than acquisition of information. The teacher should create opportunities to the learner to speak in English by conducting activities such as role-play, debate, pair work and group work in the class room.

In this regard the role of a teacher now- a-days is some what different from traditional teacher. In the present days the teacher becomes a facilitator in the process of learning rather than imparting knowledge by playing the dominant and dictatorial role. The traditional class perceives the student, as an empty vessel to be filled with knowledge that is transmitted by the teacher. The learner centered class on the other hand perceives the student as having some knowledge intrinsic to the self, which is to be brought to interact with new knowledge.

Basically learning occurs from inside the learner i.e., we cannot go on pouring information into receptive minds. We have to help learners find and make meanings for themselves with what they already have. The teacher becomes a good manager of the learning environment of the tasks in the class, of giving opportunities to learners to use language appropriately  in different situation in real life contexts by conducting activities such as Role plays, Debate, Just a minute sessions etc.,

The perspective of teaching grammar has also undergone radical change in the modern days. It is widely accepted that teaching of grammar is neither necessary nor sufficient for learning a second language such as English. In fact no scientific grammar is available which can describe all the facts of English. Grammar and structure of language can be automatically acquired by the student when he learns the language skills. Each learner may be a miniature grammarian in the course of time. So teaching grammar in isolation can be linguistically unsound and pedagogically undesirable. Now the teacher has to concentrate on functional grammar leaving aside traditional grammar which lays stress on rules and regulations. For example in George Bernard Shaw’s novel Pygmalion in which a flower vendor learnt good English from a buyer in 6 months without knowing any rules of grammar. The student should never be required to learn rules of grammar by heart. Grammar is for us, we are not for grammar.

As a language teacher one should be able to explore along with students not only grammar of forms but also grammar of function. A grammar of forms makes one familiar with the grammatical structures and rules designed to show how the systems and subsystems of language work, how these can be used by a variety of people in the variety of situations for interpersonal and inter institutional communication. There is a strong tendency for grammar of structural points which are guided with one of the three aspects of language namely Social factors, Semantic factors, Discourse facts.

1.         Social factors refers to social roles of interlocutors, their relation to each other and purpose of the communication, communicative functions like agreement, disagreement, invitation etc.,
2.         Semantic factors some grammatical units depend crucially on meaning. For example the difference between the quantifiers few and a few is semantic, not Social interactional. Discourse factors include notions like topic continuity, word order and the sequencing of old and new information.

Teaching grammar in the most appropriate situation can be achieved if grammatical points are matched with the social, semantic and discourse factors that are part of language use. It is also possible to say that grammar points or structures can be matched or paired with teaching techniques and resources. Grammar can be taught by organizing certain games. Example of teaching Grammar through the games is ‘collaborative sentence making games’. To teach the past simple, a sentence with past simple verbs is given.

For eg., Sheela came down the stairs and crossed the road, when suddenly she looked up and saw her cat walking along on the terrace ledge; she was just in time to catch it when it fell.

The students are asked to reduce the given sentence by making some deletions. The teacher is not to react to the deletion; the student should see for themselves how meanings change with deletions. Vocabulary is another factor that the teacher has to pay attention to develop communication. Wide reading is a sure guide to vocabulary building. The teacher has to develop the reading skills among the students so that they can acquire the needed vocabulary for better communication. The same word can mean differently in different situations. The teacher has to guide the student in this aspect.

For example a word like ‘run’ may be a verb, but it can be used as a noun as well. It is verb as in “A thief runs to avoid the Police”. “A Marathon run” has the word ‘run’ as a noun referring to the some act. But in the expression like “Run of the mill” the expression is stretched further with the figurative implication. In the last instance, it refers to a mechanical affair with no ability to create or arouse any new interest. The word ‘run’ in this contest acquires its meaning from the mechanical movement of the wheels and other components in a mill, moving always in the some fixed manner or pattern, producing the sense of boredom in the onlooker who seems to lose all interest in it.

On the other hand when we say that ‘a movie is running successfully’ in the theatre, it does not convey the sense of ‘running’, but its continuity or continuous success in the theatre, owing to its popularity and its approval by the theatre governs. In expressions like a ‘running argument’ ‘run’ stands for the idea of continuity, not the athletic activity of the legs or feet.

Newton the scientist is quoted to have remarked that ‘like a boy gathering pebbles on the sea shore’, he obtained pieces of information in the process of acquiring knowledge. In a similar fashion, one who wants to speak or write good English must first develop fascination of words. The regular reading of news papers and other popular journals in English will give us a lead in the vocabulary required for our use on several occasions. Reading must be accompanied with an understanding of words to be used in various contexts for effective speech. Thus constant Endeavour can help us in improving our spoken English. The teacher in the class room can cultivate the habit of reading among the students by guiding them in different kinds of reading i.e., reading for information, reading for main points, reading for specific points.

Effective communication through speaking takes place when all aspects of language have been integrated into a single utterance. In trying to make on classroom learning more efficient, it seems sensible to use all the learning capacities that people possess and therefore, to try to exploit both their skill- learning and natural learning capacities. Natural language acquisition of one’s own mother tongue seems to be an automatic and easy phenomenon. But when speech is formally taught in the case of a second language, it seems more difficult. In a multilingual society like India, two or more languages may become mixed leading to code-switching, code-mixing, transfer or so called ‘Interference errors’.

For eg., in giving directions to strangers or to one another, the learners might say ‘maidon’ or Pucca riad’ kuchcha road. As teachers, we heave to make our learners aware of the contexts where such expressions are acceptable and where they are not.

A learner may have a large number of individual structures in his or her repertoire. However he may not have had the opportunity to select and adopt the structures appropriately to particular communicative purposes as these arise during interaction. As a result for eg., a learner may not have developed sufficient flexibility to take elements from ‘I should see --- I have seen ---and creates I should have seen –

The ability to retrieve structures in response to higher level demands and to adopt utterances to suit immediate needs can only be developed through an integrated practice in real life situation. We have to keep in mind various contexts and situations that we might come across when we need to speak in English.

For instance, one can introduce to a co-passenger in the train or seeking information regarding various places of interest in Madras and the mode of transport to Pondicherry and while shopping etc. Thus, class room learning will occur most efficiently if we concentrate on enabling learners natural processes to operate. In this case teacher’s main aim in the class room should be to create contexts where learning can take place through natural communication. Also the teacher plays a vital role in the ethical development of the student.

Mediator and Facilitator of Learning:

The teacher is seen as a mediating agent who interposes his/herself between the child and external sources of stimulation and mediates the world to the child by framing, selecting, focusing and feeding back environmental experiences in such a way as to produce in him appropriate learning sets and habits. The students do not have language proficiency to meet linguistic demands of contents. They are likely to have difficulty in learning new vocabulary in English related to new concepts. So the teacher has to arrange peer tutoring, who guide them through context area lessons as they unfold.

The teacher can provide the student with valuable information of the new language as well as feed back regarding students own language. In the class the teacher can foster the development of forms and language proficiency related to literacy, particularly in literary area. The interaction between the teacher and student has instructional value to the listeners. Classroom interaction makes the students fully ‘functioning participants’ in the classroom.

Proficient Language Uses:

As a speaker of English the teacher can provide a valuable model for students. Teacher has to provide something with valuable feed back regarding their language which they are not likely to get from their peers. Interaction between the teacher and students usually focus on the message rather than the form of language, making the situation more conducive to the development of communicative skills used in informal interpersonal relation.

Provide Feedback:

Teacher need to provide student with feedback about their language. They need to do so indirectly and implicitly, avoiding mere correction and replacement of the student utterances. For eg.,

If student say ‘I think so he no come to school today’, the teacher respond “ Oh, you think he did not come to school today. Do you know why? rather than focusing on the erroneous structures in the students utterance. This gives student correct linguistic model and sends message to the student to correct his mistakes.

Mediator between Cultures:

The responsibility of a teacher is that of a representative of mainstream culture and mediating agent in the socialization of the student in to the mainstream. A student who came from cultural back ground, that is vastly different from that of mainstream population, needs time to learn about a new culture and will need even more time to adopt to its norms.

Teacher plays an extremely valuable role in creating a truly multicultural environment in institution means creating a truly multicultural institution milieu implies viewing every aspect of the curriculum from the perspective of other cultures.

Advocacy oriented Attitude:

Sociological analyses of school suggests that student from dominated societal group are either empowered or disabled as a direct result of how the educational institution incorporates the students languages and culture, how participation of the linguistically diverse community is encouraged and how teacher and administrators become advocates for students and begin to focus on their assets rather than their problems. In addition to this teacher has to play two indirect roles by collaborating and consulting with other teachers in the Educational Institution.

“The teacher is like an oil lamp. If it is steady and bright a hundred lamps can be lit by it, without in any way diminishing its brightness. For ensuring the brightness of the lamp, it is necessary that the wick be in a good order and oil supply be sufficient.”

Certainly the role of teacher cannot be written in mere words. One may wish to modify the students to make them fit in all situations. Teacher is a provider of knowledge. He/she is treated as second parent of the child. They are bridge for the future of the student. The teacher is a person who will recognize the strengths or weaknesses of her/his student and encourage them to enhance their knowledge and skills. He is a very important person who helps the student to promote his/her education knowledge and character.

The teacher should take the role of a facilitator and create a favorable atmosphere wherein the students could interact with peers without any inhibitions. If we can create such an atmosphere we can achieve success in making our students learn spoken English. It may be broken English in the beginning but the learners will evolve into effective communications in English in the course of time. So the teacher has to motivate the students to participate in the activity based learning and enable him to develop confidence and let him think.

‘I can … I can … I can …’ a teacher should remember the famous saying of Socrates.

‘I cannot teach anybody anything I can only make them think’.

Hence it can be rightly said that the role of an English teacher is to focus on tasks and activities which help the students not only to shape them as the good citizens but also good communicators.


1.      Rin Volucri M. (1984) Grammar Games. Cam bridge: Cambridge University press.
2.      Krishna Swami N. (1975) Modern English. Madras: Macmillan.
3.      Allen, Virginia French. (1983) Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary. New York: Oxford University Press.
4.      Richards, J.A (1943) Basic English and its Uses. London: Kegan Paul Wallace, Michael. (1982) Teaching Vocabulary. London: Heinemann Watcyn Jones, Peter (1985) Test Your Vocabulary :3 London : Penguin Anderson, J.R (1985) Cognitive Psychology and its Implications. 2nd ed. New York: W.H Freeman and Co.,

20. Some Considerations in ELT

Associate .Prof.of English
EVM College of Engg. & Technology

            Globalization has made English Language a de facto standard in national communication. English has become the language of the educated It has become a language for employability. Good command over it is a unique qualification to keep an edge over the others. Especially, Engineers need to interact with professionals from other cultures and countries which would turn out to be impossible but for language fluency. A professional graduate has to express technical data with precision and clarity, liaise with colleagues and manufacturers, build-up client relations and deliver accurate presentations on technical subjects. For the effective functioning of these strategies, a focus on active speaking, writing and communication skills is a must. Despite years of exposure to English many students are found to be woefully inadequate in communicating.
            The method of teaching all around the world in all fields during the last twenty years has changed drastically. In language education, it began with the communicative approach with its shifts from meaningless to meaningfulness, from form to form and content, and almost most significantly, with its emphasis on pair and group work and the shared creation of language.
In language teaching we have moved through the communicative approach to the learner-centered approach. This is the era characterized by a new and growing understanding of learning styles and strategies with a focus on humanism and individuality. The revolution that has continued through all these necessary stages makes it clear that there is no holy grail, no best method or approach that is going to work all the time for all the people.
            Workshop sort of environment is  very messy yet  students learn quite a lot in various ways like  short written drafts on their chosen area, practicing  presentation skills etc.It is the job of the teacher to motivate the students in taking evaluation seriously so that they attempt to present many  more times. Students may be involved in evaluating each other's work.
            We, Homo sapiens are social creatures, but too often in classrooms the rules are: Eyes on your own paper. No talking to your neighbors. There is a joy in learning that comes with relinquishing control .By allowing students to collaborate and work on projects and learn in their own way, teachers can discover the great potential for learning. Cooperation moves the classroom towards a more natural language and learning situation and away from the artificiality of the teacher-fronted environment.
            Language learning will always be taxing and the nuts and bolts of language will always be the scaffolding we'll need to construct for our students and help them climb. While doing so, there is always a place for happy party chatter and good fun in the classroom.
Modern  Requirements

            It is an uncontested fact that knowledge of English is a pre-requisite for success in the modern world. The universities and colleges bear the onus of preparing the students to face the world by equipping them with the requisite knowledge and skills. Learning a language is different from learning subjects like Mathematics and Geography, where the teacher plays a pivotal role in acquainting the students with rules and facts pertaining to the field. But language skills can be developed only by having the learner at the centre, and by providing maximum opportunities for practicing and learning from personal experience. The emphasis thus, has to be on strengthening communicative competence by exposing the learner to real-life situational use of the language.

The learner-centred Approach

            English has been taught in India since ages in teacher-centered classrooms using Grammar – translation method and pattern practice. Often this teaching has not resulted in development of language skills and the students have been unable to effectively express themselves in English.

“Language is not merely a system of forms but is a system of meanings as well.” Though language acts are manifested through physical channels, they are nevertheless mental acts.” (Nagraj 2002: 133-134) To learn the languages, mental involvement is a necessary .Modern requirement seems to get satisfied by following the learner centered approach. An offshoot of the Functional –National and Communicative approaches is the learner centered model which views language acquisition “as a process of acquiring skills rather than a body of knowledge” (Nunan 1988:21), this approach’s “prime focus is on the learner. The teacher is just a facilitator – a person who ‘manages’ the environment and material which will help the students become autonomous learners.” (Nagraj 1966:44).
The learner-centered approach considers language learning as a “process-oriented” activity. Language is regarded essentially as a set of skills acquired through experiencing language use in different situations. This approach, thus, pays attention to the main elements and aspects of composing by “giving the learner –writer supports and procedures that help him to pay specific attention to choose and/or understand the topic; gather information; organise thoughts; compose; gather feedback; (re-) revise; and finally present or publish the finished product”. (Tickoo 2003:64)

A learner – centered approach facilitates learning through techniques involving learners either in pairs or groups of five-six. Geetha Nagraj suggests that the learner has to be given some mind engaging tasks, like role-playing, group work and pair work. This allows greater peer interaction, which is more effective in acquiring features of informal use of language, which are often not available in a formal teacher centered class.

Activities involving the teacher at the centre generate the ability to manipulate language in a social context, which is an important feature of communicative competence. These activities result in more language practice through greater students’ involvement.

            Activities to teach students through a learner- Centered approach motivate the students, ensure better learning, and result in lifelong learning too. They sometimes try to put in efforts to do a better interaction (in and out of the class) and involvement of the whole class. Many hidden, talents and capabilities of the students are revealed in such tasks and the classroom dynamics become better. Students gain energy and confidence with each step. It is imperative that the students be made to understand the language and its use for changing requirements. The teaching methodology has to be remodeled keeping the learner at the core to ensure tangible learning.

The Language Lab
            Global phenomena have led to many changes all over the world. The most important aspect is to have a Lingua Franca. English is the universal language – the Lingua Franca. It has become inevitable to learn and use Standard English language. The conventional approach of teaching may not help the present generation since it is ‘the language’ and not a subject. Novel methods include self- learning methods and activity oriented approaches and the most radical mode- the language lab.The present scenario of language learning has taken an innovative mode of computerized or multimedia learning. Almost all graduate courses in India have set up language labs for the acquisition of English language. Obviously it is a useful source to the original accent through software. Software technologies are available in plenty on language learning, accent, phonetics, vocabulary and soft skills.
Language Lab- Some Features

Ø  The language lab learning provides question and answer patterns so that a student can have self-analysis.
Ø  It provides the original or native accent and listening exercises will bring transformation in accent patterns.
Ø  Many skills can be acquired from language lab like listening, reading, typing, accent- recording.
Ø  Different exercises can be done- quizzes, comprehensions, vocabulary games like crosswords, anagrams or choose the right words and so many.

The Role of the Language Teacher

Though many teaching aids like language lab have made an entry, it is the teacher who finally provides the right guidance. The function of the teacher is far reaching for he is the ultimate mentor. So the teacher is
not supposed to be a passive evaluator but an active and emotional mentor in elevating the learner’s knowledge. The teacher has to adopt novel techniques and methodologies for the effectiveness of the lab.
Language laboratory proves to be an useful source provided the teacher acts as the active and emotional mentor. Here are a few methods for the effective functioning of language laboratory:

The teacher should have a clear idea about the software, how it functions, what it emphasizes and the contents. Then the teacher should plan for demonstration so that the student will have no ambiguity.

The demo should emphasize:
Ø  How to operate the software and how to navigate.
Ø  The content and skills.
Ø  Observation or noting important points, how to note key words, important definitions, meanings and grammar points.
Ø  Clear objectives must be transmitted to students such as why a particular lesson is assigned.

Variety of Tasks
Ø  It is the teacher who has to decide which skill and task has to be assigned from the software.
Ø  It is better to go for different tasks like listening, reading comprehension, vocabulary exercises, grammar games, accent exercises to avoid monotony.
Ø  The tasks and skills should be pre planned and should not be given at the moment.
Though computer suggests and gives explanation, it is the teacher who knows the student’s capability. Only the teacher can assess the students performance in an appropriate manner. Each student may display unique traits of talent and that is identified by the teacher and proper guidance can be given. The computer cannot assess the student level and it can only provide information and practice where as the teacher can be an emotional mentor by adopting the following methods:
Ø  Appreciation
Ø  Giving feedback
Ø  Identifying the trouble in learning process
Ø  Giving suggestions and guidelines
Ø  Identifying the level of the student
Ø  Interpretation of the concept by different methodologies
Ø  Acting situational
Choice of the Activity: After each lab session, the student should be given practical exposure to the concepts. What the student learns in the lab must have practical application. In addition to language lab exercises more communication activities should be used. If the teacher chooses related activities, the student gains and the learning process is completed.

Viva voce:

Oral questioning is one of the best and traditional procedures in assessing the student. The teacher should sign the observation by asking related questions like definitely keep the student on the right track.

English it is not learning that matters but participation. If the students participate as they are on a treasure hunt, then the learning outcome is tremendous. The role and success of the teacher lies in making the learner explore through worthy day to day subject matters and not only through dull grammar method. Teachers of English have the special privilege of fine-tuning the future citizens of the Globe with a world of peace and harmony built on excellent human relationships.
So it is aptly said by Dan Rather-
What is clear now, is that it is no longer about approach or method. It is mostly about people. They come with different learning styles and strategies, they are mostly untrained to think, and they are all growing both as language learners and as people. Promoting higher-level thinking skills can be done using stimulating content-rich materials and asking thoughtful questions. This implies a roomful of people, thinking and learning together -- which is something very different from the standard model of a roomful of students with the teacher as knowledge bearer or even facilitator.

  1. Betty J. Frey, “Basic helps for Teaching English as a Second Language”, Palo Verde Publishing Inc, Tucson, Arizona, U. S. A., 1970.

  1. S. Ramadevi, Rama Mathew et. al., “The E. L. T. Curriculum: Emerging Issues”, B. R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, 1992.

  1. W. Stannard Allen, “Living English Structure”, Orient Longman Limited, Patna, 1997.

  1. A.K.Paliwal, “Communicative Language Teaching in English”, Abhi Publications, Jaipur, India, 1996.

  1. Geetha Nagaraj, “English Language Teaching – Approaches, Methods, Techniques”, Orient Longman Private Limited, Hyderabad, 2008.

21. Equipping Students for Campus Placements

                                                            Dr T.S.Chandra Mouli,

          This presentation seeks to focus on significance of ELT in colleges and the role of teachers in equipping students for campus placement. Globalization has succeeded in creating a seamless world. As Dr Abdul Kalaam , former President of India opines it is imperative that we have to create a knowledge rich society. Might, money controlled the global activities in the past. It is knowledge which is going to offer access to global power. India has to gear up in this regard. Equipping students, the future rulers, adequately is the prime responsibility of teachers, especially English teachers.

22.Task-based Learning: A Focused Approach in Teaching

Dr. G.A. Ghanshyam

Language is power only when applied to practical use. English as a second language has attained prime importance not only in India but across the globe transforming into the language that connects the entire world. Being the basis of communication language learning should aim to prepare the learner for life outside the classroom.

ELT classrooms play the dual role of learning as well as usage for the maximum number of students in India who hail from a rural and economically challenged background. The prescribed syllabus is hardly attuned to the practical needs of the student. In higher education wherein the student is required to have a basic communicative competence in English for practical purposes, the syllabus lacks short of achieving its objective. An average graduate student can hardly write a simple application or fill up a bank form, speaking the language with fluency is totally out of the question.

The current syllabus of under graduate class in Chhattisgarh is not equipped to empower the students with the practical usage of the language nor does it have any motivational quality that can create an interest among the students to take up language learning with the same degree of enthusiasm and seriousness as other major subjects.

TBL or task based learning is an innovative approach that caters to the practical needs of language learning and usage. The teaching process gives greater importance and role to the student wherein the student is provided the freedom to use his language skill to do a practical task. The shift of focus on the student giving him more space and liberty to utilize the language creates greater interest and a favourable atmosphere in the language classroom.

The present paper highlights the drawbacks of the syllabus that requires an urgent overhauling of its material content and approach. It gives emphasis to TBL and its advantages and the points that need to be kept in mind while introducing the novel method into our classrooms.

 ELT in India
                                                                                    Prof E.Subbarao , 
                                                                                                                ,AIET, Satuluru

The teaching of English in Indian schools depends on actual heterogeneity rather than the assumed homogeneity of the classroom. The classroom is essentially multilingual and multi cultural. These features can be used as resources rather than seen as obstacles. Children do need to learn English but not at the cost of their own languages. It is possible to organize methods, materials, teacher training and classroom transaction in a way that the languages of children are not ignored. English thus gets its proficiency among all levels of children. It is thought that there is a lot of knowledge largely stored in the form of a text book which will be transacted in the class room by the teacher fairly in a prescriptive way. At the end of every term or semester, every student will be evaluated using the same question paper, where there is only one possible correct answer to every question. It is a fact that the teacher and the children must share the same language and to a great extent the same culture. In this method there is no chance for the linguistic and cultural diversity present in the classroom.

            It is a fact that English in India should and will flourish in the company of other languages not at their cost. If English continues to neglect other languages as Sanskrit, Arabic or Persian did, it will inevitably meet their fate. It seems clear that every Indian child needs to learn English but it should be understood that Indian Englishes though sharing their syntactic properties with other varieties of English across the world, will be significantly different in their phonologies and lexicons.

            After the passing of the Right to Education Bill in parliament, some of the state governments in our country are thinking of introducing Activity Based Learning System for standards 1 to 4 and Active Learning Methodology to standards 6 to 8. These new teaching methodologies stress greater inclusion and interaction of children in the learning process aiming to bring variety and enjoyment back in the classroom. Teaching methods being old fashioned, the onus is placed overwhelmingly on passing exams, for which they need only memorise the content of their textbooks, rather than actually teaching them the skills they need.

            As the Lingua Franca of the International community and as the only language that links all the states of India together, the benefits of teaching Indian children to speak English are large. The ever-increasing BPO sector, the largest employer in the private sector economy, constantly bemoans the insufficient English language skills of Indian graduates, an elite minority themselves claiming that only 15% have the required level to work in business services without first undergoing major additional training. The paper explores the complicated issues concerning to ELT in India.

English Language Teaching at + 2: Some Insights

V.Vijaya Vani.M.A, M.phil (Ph D)

            The proposed paper entitled, English Language Teaching: problems and prospects attempts to undertake an appraisal of  English language teaching in Indian class rooms at +2 level along with its problems and prospects.

            Teaching of English at plus 2 institutions is almost all same in all the states in India. It is being taught as a second language. The classes are more lecture centered here.  The prescribed English syllabus for intermediate colleges includes prose, poetry and supplementary reader, grammar. In English class rooms, language-teaching scenario gives a picture where the language teachers, when they teach language, follow almost the same pattern of teaching their students -- in introducing the text, explaining the text and telling everything including meanings, grammar etc.and practicing the items that are taught. They seem to adopt “the question and answer skills”. As a result, there is very less interaction between teacher and students as well as among students in language class room.

            The problem of teaching English as a second language to the Indian students starts from the pre-schooling and it continues in intermediate. These problems can be viewed under method of teaching and material usage and evaluation system. English lecturers are taking active part in classes and students’ role   is passive observers. It is happening because of English material which is content based and method of teaching that is traditional method and evaluation system also focuses more on content. The sole objective of the teacher and the learner remain “to clear the exams”.  As a consequence, the students do not  realize the importance of learning English as a language.

             In Intermediate, much importance is being given to the optional subjects without any realization about the importance of language which is the medium of study.  Due to this factor, the students of non-English medium background are particularly at a disadvantage. If the system desires to target at uniform level of skills of basic communication among these two disparate groups of students, bridge courses should be conducted to improve the language skills of the weaker students. A change in methods, material usage and testing may help students to develop their language skills.  Intermediate level is best suited for intensive teaching of English language skills for more than one reason; students are matured enough to understand the working of a language and young enough to internalize the rules that govern a language. Moreover, at this stage, they are also more ambitious about their future professions and more serious about reaching their educational targets to fulfill those ambitions.

A New Method of Teaching English to Learners of Teaching English  to Learners from Non-English  Speaking Countries

Israel Jayakaran

        English learners from Non– English speaking countries require a new method altogether; a logical and a foolproof one at that. The traditional grammar or the British approach of functional grammar have not proved effective in their case at all. Many graduates and Post graduates come to me for learning English.  They understand every word and sentence I speak with them. And when I ask a question, they know what they want to say in answer but do not know how to put those words in a proper English sentence. Their problem is obviously how an English sentence is constructed; which word will go in which slot and so on?  If they are given a standard formula in this regard, they would have no problem whatever. And they are likely to bubble with a new confidence as well.

            I have evolved such a formula and simplified the complete technique of teaching English from a low level to high level.  This article gives a glimpse of the new method of teaching English to learners from non-English speaking countries and homes. The Author’s claim is that if we teach English through the S+A+V+O/C formula method, the students would learn the language much faster, find themselves on firmer grounds and also attain a kind of mastery  in the English  language.   Apart from the above, the article gives some  new definitions/terminologies and new approach/interpretations. 

                           Teacher’s Role in the Classroom

Y. Solomon Raju
Asst. Professor of English
VKR& VNB Engineering College

This paper  discusses  the  importance   of  defining   the  teacher’s role  in  building a class  room  community. It discusses some new teaching techniques in oral class, which breaks the traditional teaching methods. If teachers  are aware  of  the  advantage  of these new methods and put  them  into  practice, then  we  can  create  a  lively  and  natural  atmosphere so  that  the  students  will  lose  their inhibition  and  learn  English  happily.
            The  main  point  of  this  paper  is  that  the   best  teaching method  can produce   the  best effect  and it  should  be  a  combination of some  flexible  and  approaches   rather  than only  one  single teaching  method  as well as  the  cooperation  of teacher  and  students.

Error Analysis of Teachers Working in Govt. Secondary Schools in the Rural and Urban Areas in Guntur

G.Premalatha, M.Phil Scholar
Anatha Lakshmi, M.Phil Scholar

 As English is not our mother tongue, non-native speakers commit some errors peculiar errors. The mistakes can broadly be divided into the syntactic, the semantic, the lexical and the grammatical.  The study focuses on the grammatical errors committed by teachers working in secondary schools in the rual and urban areas in Guntur. A questionnaire was administered on a sample of 150 students. The paper is about the conclusion inferred.
            Regarding the mistakes it was found that mother tongue interference, wrong application of rules,  ignorance of rules, failure to make out rule restriction are some of the important findings. The paper also suggests ways to tide over the errors committed by

                             Teacher’s Role in the Class Room

U. Venkatya Ramana

Teacher's role in the class room is not a show model but role model. In teaching and reacting and class room management, he has to play a successful role. It depends on the knowledge, experience and creativity of a teacher. Happy way of learning with freedom, under positive way of guidance helps the learner-centred  education a grand success.

Role and Analysis of ELT in Technical Communication

 R. N. Joshi
Sr. Lecturer in English (Communication Skills)
C  U Shah College of Engineering & Technology
Wadhwan City – 363 030.(Gujarat)

English for Technical Communication (ETC) is a novel development of English for specific purpose on the demand of the society for improving students' ability in communicating technical information. For last more than nine years or so, I have been involved in teaching Technical Communication to Undergraduate (B.E.) & Postgraduate (M.E. & M.C.A.) students and I have experienced that the ETC training significantly develops students' skills in technical reading and writing, but not so much in speaking. This requires improving pedagogic and increasing the mutual communication so as to raise students' ability in oral English.

         The basic period of college English teaching in India, almost everywhere, is influenced by test-oriented education. Both teachers and students value test results more than language practice, and many students with high test scores are found comparatively poor in actual speaking and writing, especially in talking business of their own profession. Therefore, how to solve these problems in the period of graduate and postgraduate education, so as to raise students' ability of technical or professional communication in English, is an important task of research in Technical Institutions of Saurashtra where English is taught as a Foreign (Second) Language. This paper discusses various issues related to Teaching English in Technical Institutions, especially of Saurashtra region.

Key Words: English for Technical Communication (ETC), English for Specific Purpose (ESP), ESL (English as a Second Language)


S. Pushpalatha,
Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College,

                        S. Vidhula Valli,
                        K.M.M. Engineering College,

Centuries ago in this land of Vedas, the teacher devoted all his time for the betterment  of his pupils in all directions - knowledge, morals, values etc. He was called the 'Guru or Acharya'.Guru is verily the representative of Brahma (Creator), Vishnu (Preserver) and Shiva (Transformer). He creates, sustains knowledge and destroys the weeds of ignorance. Earlier, in the ancient age there existed gurukulas which was almost like informal education. Later, it became formal with the classroom settings. Now it has become virtual classrooms without walls (e-class, video conferencing etc.).

It is universally recognized that the teacher is the key person in an education system. He/She enjoys the high esteem and prestigious status and the role of the teacher still remains pivotal. Teacher has huge responsibilities on his shoulders to maintain the decorum of a classroom. It can be concluded that student’s behavior depicts the standards of teaching and ability of teacher in the classroom.  In short, teachers are responsible for the social behavior in the classroom. To make comfort level of students in the classroom, teachers must create warm and protective environment while maintaining professionalism. Certainly the role of the teacher cannot be written off in mere words. However, this paper highlights some of the key responsibilities with reference to strategies, methods and planning to manage the class room in an effective manner.

Computer-Assisted Language Learning

Mrs. T.Aparna Shankar, M.A,M.A,MPhil.
Master Minds Arts College,

CALL originates form CAI ( computer-Accelerated Instruction) and was invented by Sir Mazlan form IIUM in 1970’s. The philosophy of CALL puts strong emphasis on student – centered lessons that allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and / or unstructured bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. Actually speaking, CALL is not a method. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used  to reinforce  what has been learned in the class rooms. It can be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.    Since 1960’s the day of tracing & development, CALL has developed a symbiotic relationship between the development of technology & pedagogy. Since the latter part of the 20th century it plays a vital role in the instructional programme of English language.

            CALL & computational linguistics are separate but somewhat interdependent fields of study . The basic goal of computational Linguistics is to ‘teach’ computers to generate & comprehend grammatically- acceptable sentences.  It is used for purposes of translation & direct communication with computers where the computer understands and generates natural language. Student generally responds with the corresponding word & is thus attracted to the sophistication of computer technologies and has led to other possibilities.

Technology can bring about changes in the teaching methodologies of foreign language beyond simply automating fill-in-the gap exercises. Students need the reassuring and motivating presence of a teacher in CALL environments.  Most students report preferring to do work in a lab with a teacher’s  presence rather than completely on their own.

The present CBT (Computer Based Test) introduced by the Universities can be presented as the best example for this type of education. A number of studies have been done concerning how the use of CALL / CBT affects the development of language learners ‘four skills (listening, speaking, reading & writing). Most report significant gains in reading & listening & most CALL programs are geared towards receptive skills because of the current stage of computer technology.

The CBT which the universities have introduced is in a way very helpful in two ways. As computer technology has improved greatly in the last three decades, students tend to prefer computers as they feel the class is more interesting. In fact, computer based materials perform more varied tasks than the purely – audio mixed – media. Multimedia can not only play pre-recorded audio & video material but also can create new audio & video recording, Most multimedia computer programs tend to be strong on presentation  but weak as for as pedagogy and even interaction.  Main advantages with this type of learning is the ability to individualize learning , better sound and color images.
Many  strongly subscribe to  the idea of introducing CBT marks in graduate courses. Not only should they be used in training students for improving their listening, speaking and  such integrated skills in English but also in improving several supra-segmental  features of English language like stress, weak forms, rhythm & intonation and to reduce the interference of Mother Tongue . It is important to note that teachers using CALL should be computer literate and update their skills continuously. They should demonstrate dual expertise both in the subject concerned and  learning technologies. Also stress should be laid on to improving vocabulary and reading skills in English Language. Right type of habits  should be cultivated to read articles dealing with some of its advantages and the challenges so that the possible problems can be averted and addressed.

Audio-lingual Method: Advantages and Apprehensions

Mutyala Suresh

 M.A., M.Phil., (Ph.D)
Asst.Professor of English,   
Vignan University
Vadlamudi, English                                      

Language is an activity. It consists of four skills - listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Of these, speaking is considered to be the most important skill to master. Its success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out conversation in an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving, and processing information. Speaking is very important because by mastering speaking skill, people can carry out conversation with others, give the ideas and exchange the information with others. Hence, in speaking classroom, the learners should work as much as possible on their own, talk to one another directly and think the medium of the teacher, which is absent in many English classrooms.

Considering the explanation above, English Language Teachers must have onerous responsibility, as they are demanded to have teaching strategies in order to solve the problems faced by the students in learning English. The teachers must be able to arrange their assignments effectively. They are demanded to motivate the students in order to learn English well. The effectiveness of any method, however, depends largely upon the actual classroom performance of the teacher. Thorough learning is a possibility with this method, only when the teacher is not asked to follow the syllabus strictly.

The Place of Authentic Materials
                                                                              M.SANDRA CARMEL  SOPHIA      
                                                                               DEPT., OF P.G.ENGLISH
                                                                                SIR.CRR COLLEGE,ELURU.

Second and foreign language teaching provides a career for hundreds of thousands of people world wide, and the vast educational enterprise of English language teaching cannot operate effectively without the dedication, commitment and effort of teachers throughout their careers. Maintaining the interest, creativity and enthusiasm of the students by experienced language teachers in their noble profession is one of the challenges faced by every educator. Teachers need to expand their roles and responsibilities overtime if they are to continue to find language teaching rewarding  and it is the responsibility of educational institutions to provide opportunities to teachers to develop long term career goals.

            The field of language teaching is subject to rapid changes both, as the profession response to new educational paradigms and trends and as institutions face new challenges as a result of changes in curriculum, national tests and student needs. As a result teachers need regular opportunities to update their professional knowledge and skills for self development.  “Teaching is the profession that teaches all other professions”. Teaching is such a noble task, that the teachers play a vital role in imparting quality education to the students in a class. Both in terms of content and style, a teacher should be able to motivate and create interest in the students through her art of communication and manner of expression. ‘Style is the man’ said Walter Pater. Style is the teacher as teachers role in the class should be effective and enthusiastic in their manner of presentation that the students do not lose interest: teaching alone should not be the objective of the teacher but “effective teaching” should be the end. It is the bounden duty of the teacher to inspire, and evoke maximum interest and active atmosphere in the students in the class  through  teaching. Herein lies the multiple role of  the teacher to be a mentor, guide, philosopher, counselor, listener, actor, dancer, musician, etc,. Clubbed with the performance of  these roles is the implementation of various teaching techniques and methodologies by the teacher.

           The teacher should introduce some modern methods of teaching without losing hold on the text prescribed. It is here that the question of authentic materials arise. Authentic materials known as ‘realia’ is described as anything created for native speaker of a language. For instance visual pictures or images. They are a  great source of authentic reading material and are limitless supply of materials that come from the target cultures and of the languages we teach. These resources provide ‘real life’ linguistic input as well as cultural information. Considering the use of authentic materials, Widdowson wrote, “it has been traditionally supposed that the language presented to the learners should be simplified in some way for easy access and acquisition. Now a days there are  recommendations that the languages presented should be authentic”. The use of authentic materials is highly motivating that gives a sense of achievement when understood and encourages further reading. One of the main reasons for using authentic materials in the classroom is to achieve safe controlled language learning environment, so that the learner will not encounter artificial language in the classroom. Thus authentic materials play a significant role in a classroom. So it is in this perspective that the presenters wish to offer an insight into the role and place of authentic materials in teaching-learning and discuss the various merits of authentic materials.


Teacher’s Role in the Class Room

   Dr. T. Jeevan Kumar
   Assistant Professor
   PVKK PG College

In the present scenario of globalization, the English teacher has to change his/her role from a ‘classroom-dominated one’ to a ‘facilitator’ to develop the language skills of the learner.  The amount of time that a teacher is to spend for preparation is also increasing with the recent innovative techniques like teaching through Audio-visual aids, teaching through Internet, teaching phonetics through music, teaching through games, etc. in imparting the language skills.  Before he chooses any of the techniques, he should know the capacity of the learner.  Just as a doctor diagnoses his patient prior to prescribing the medicine, the teacher should also test the capacity of the learner.  To accurately test the learners give them some tasks.  While giving these tasks the teacher has to keep in mind the level of the learner and then teach the language. In the present paper is to explicate  the role of a teacher in the English classroom and some ways are suggested that can be used to make the classroom transactions better.



Dr Prudhvi Raju.D
EFL University, Hyderabad

If teaching second language to the speakers of other languages is difficult to the teachers, it is certainly no longer so in the twenty first century. This complexity has been intensified by “globalization” and the Internet revolution. To fully participate in the world community, particularly with in interconnected economic, technological, and geo-political realities one requires a fluency in English. This fluency is not only in spoken language but also written language as well. So present writing teachers should behave with the combination of sense of responsibility and sense of innovation in teaching writing, but not like sense of responsibility and sense of helplessness like a football coach.

“One of the fundamental goals of all school education is to help students become effective learners by “learning to think” and learning to learn” (UNESCO, 1972). Writing is therefore a powerful instrument of thought without which; the thinking of Plato and Aristotle would not be available to us. However, writing is necessary not only to philosophers but also normal human beings to convey their thoughts to others. This communication, however, does not come easily to students and learners and is actually a very complex skill which requires both physical and mental struggle on the part of the writer. According to Walters (1983: 17), “writing is the last and perhaps most difficult skill students learn – if they ever do”. Byrne (1979) also asserts that writing is neither an easy nor a spontaneous skill. It requires conscious mental effort. Since it helps in developing analytical thinking and communication skills, the evolution of writing skills has a great role to play within education. 

In a country like India where writing is working as a ‘gate keeper’ (to enter the academics and jobs) everyone needs to learn writing skills. To fulfill the academic and job requirements learners need to write. It is the responsibility of the teachers to make their students to understand the mechanism and importance of writing. So teachers and learners need to pay much attention to develop writing skills. However, most of the learners in regional medium schools and colleges just memorize and reproduce the answers in the exams. In this context there is a need to address the writing skills with a great emphasis. One of the most important challenges of present ESL teachers is providing individual attention to the learners in different forms like, written comments, error corrections, teacher-student conferencing, and/or peer discussion which is not possible under normal classroom conditions (Hyland & Hyland, 2006). Teachers are very much conscious about the feedback which supports in teaching environment and which can help teachers to change their learners’ perceptions about writing.

Clear understanding of the historical context of the field is very much important for both teachers and researchers, because our theoretical and pedagogical practices are always historically situated. Without knowing the context in which certain theories or pedagogical strategies developed we may not apply them or modify them in the other contexts. There is a possibility for us as teachers, without understanding of the history we may continue to use some pedagogical strategies that no longer appropriate for the  changing students population or discord some useful ideas or practices for the wrong reasons. This paper describes how feedback can be used as pedagogical tool to enhance students writing capability. It also talks about approaches in teaching writing, different perspectives how they use feedback, and teachers and students response to feedback.

ELT  at Schools

T. Venkateswara Rao
S.A. (English)
T.N.S. Z.P.H. School
West Godavari

Language teaching has unique problems at schools. The teacher monopolizes all the space and it is only one man show in our conventional class rooms. The teacher of English equipped with three books:  Reader, Supplementary Reader and Work Book as just his students have. They use rote method and chalk and talk, it is only one way process. Lack of good instructional material conventional methods of teaching, influence of mother tongue since childhood are some of the obstacles. No English environment and exposure and limiting access to teaching material.  So, the learning experience is not natural and so it makes the child feel insecure, encourages competition as against collaboration and teaching gets very formal and rigid. Some other problems have been identified in the context of English language teaching. These include psychological, emotional, methodological and linguistic problems in addition to the problems posed by the material and environment as said above we never find a standard dictionary in our schools. No charts and pictures available in the class room. No activity corner in any class. So pupils are away from learning process. No audio and video presentation takes place in our class room. The bare fact is that a good number of schools have no power connection even today. The paper is an attempt to explore the ways that redeem the present condition.

Enhancing Students’ Knowledge of Lexical Items through
Authentic Materials

Lecturer in English
RVR & JCCE,  Guntur
A.Lakshmi Narayana
M.Phil Scholar

It has been well said that competence in a target language can be gained though sounds, words and structures. They determine one’s competence in the language. It is, nevertheless, words which has got its magnitude as it decides students, proficiency. The command over them is crucial as  they push back one’s  horizons of knowledge and help him comprehend both spoken and written words. 

The traditional material at high school reigned supreme for a long time.. It did not serve any purpose as the cultural context is  far-fetched and therefore, the students had  been ill at ease. With the emergence of CLT, authentic material has come into limelight as they create real life situation in the class room. As the material is rooted in the cultural milieu students take interest and hence, the learning outcome is laudable. It   was used as a means of contextualizing language and so Widdowson calls it “genuine material”.

A bird’s eye  view of the material in various text books bring out the efficacy of the material. However, students’ ken when it comes to vocabulary is satisfactory as can  be inferred from the study. The study is conducted on a sample of 260 students to ascertain their competence  pertaining to oral communication. Questionnaire was administered. The paper draws certain  inferences  which will be dealt with exhaustively in the paper.


Importance of English as a Global language, & Teaching English at Primary and Secondary levels: The Need of Change in the Curriculum and Structure in
Andhra Pradesh

Assistant Professor of English
VITAM Engineering College

English being a "lingua franka” of many nations across the globe has gained a lot of importance in deciding the academic development of an aspirant. The growing Global Scenario demands the basic skills of English L.S.R.W.  i.e. Listening ,Speaking , Reading and Writing.

            The three language formula which was adopted by NCERT. has emerged as a strategy and not a policy.  It recommends that English should be introduced as a second language at Secondary level, the seven years of schooling can help the young minds to emerge the language usage in their day to day communication.

            Many states in India have accepted the recommendations of NCERT and introduced English from class 3rd class  and remaining states from class 6th.  Yet there are different opinions about the curriculum and syllabus of English language in different states, especially in North Eastern Frontier states. For example in the state of Mizoram , much importance is given to  grammar teaching even from the class 1st & 2nd .  In Manipur a limited Vocabulary has been prescribed for each class which is almost obsolete and out dated.  In Nagaland which has English as its official language has introduced L.S.R.W. skills along with phonetics, written formats etc
            In Andhra Pradesh , our State Government tried to introduce CBSE pattern of syllabus in the place of existing state syllabus.  But UTF (United Teacher's Federation) under the guidance of famous Educationalist 'Chukkah Ramaiah' has advised , not to implement it as it may lead to the closure of many educational Institutions which follow the state syllabus.

            Our state Government has also decided to introduce English as a main media of teaching i.e. as First Language so as to meet the global needs which is accepted by UTF. Still there are different opinions about the change in the curriculum and language .

            We know that English language plays a vital role in communication.  It acts as a window to the world for the aspirants, who try to seek their fortune in India and Abroad.  So there is a need to reframe the curriculum which can satisfy the needs of global scenario.  Thus my present paper deals with the difficulties faced in introducing English as a first language in our state and also the need to restructure the curriculum in the place of existing state syllabus.
Emerging Trends in English Language Teaching

Dr. D.Ratnagiri  Usha
Lecturer in English
SR&BGNR Govt.College

English has acquired an unassailable position in day-to-day transactions of the people in all the walks of life- be it social, political, business, trade or commerce. During the past two decades awareness to the effect can be witnessed in the attitude of the Indian youth who have realized that effective communication in English alone warrants identity and security in the job market. Communication is an umbrella term which includes all the four skills (LSRW), besides business/ trade transactions.

ELT, in the past few decades has come a long way from teacher centered to text oriented to learner centered. This change is made possible owing to the socio-politico-economic changes that revolutionized the 21st century decolonized societies called as nation-states. The heterogeneous communities and the pluralistic societies tied together with IT revolution necessitated the adoption of English language as an added advantage for sustenance and survival, leave alone growth and development. So today English has come to the status of ‘imperative’ from its earlier position of ‘imposed’.

The role of an English teacher in the traditional classroom has turned out to be a challenging one for it is commonly realized by all that ’Silence is anathema to communication’, as Janet Emig rightly remarked. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) answered the requirements of the English Language Teaching and Learning in the modern scenario.

ELT has come a long way in meeting the demands of the technology - driven society where divisions between various fields of knowledge have been merging generating new avenues to explore. CALL, Web-based teaching techniques and methods have opened up multiple approaches to communicative classroom. Language Labs have provided the supportive mechanism to teach/ / learn proficiency in speech and writing to the young aspirant. However, the present–day ‘netizens’ will have to be equipped with other skills such as e-mailing online multimedia messages  between individuals or among a larger audience in a very effective manner. Voicemailing, Video conferencing ,chatting and live interaction, video resume etc. Herein lies the need for effective communicative competence using the right idiom, crisp language and clear and appealing expression. Though ELT through CLT can serve the purpose, the need is ever changing and demanding as English is used for a variety of other purposes (EOP) too asking its users  to be ‘continuous’ and ‘autonomous’ learners. To the innovative teacher, task-based teaching techniques coupled with technological support offer a potential teaching / learning ambience that would promote collaborative and cooperative learning in the traditional classroom itself without compromise. This paper examines a few emerging trends along these lines.
Effectiveness of Short Stories in Enhancing Reading Skill

B. Srinivasa Rao
Dept of English (PG)
T.J.P.S. College

C. Jahnavi
M. Phil Scholar

The purpose of this article is to familiarize ESL instructors with the effectiveness of using literature in language teaching. Some instructors of EFL/ESL still believe that EFL encompasses focusing linguistic benefits in enhancing their students to communicate in target language, others realized that literature adds new dimension to the teaching of EFL.  They help students to learn the four fold skills- listening, speaking, reading and writing more  effectively because every individual can be intrinsically of the grief’s of literature short stories are immensely beneficial to enhance students reading skills.    

It is patent that a story with its emphasis on limited lexical stems, syntactical patterns and to top it all, limited space is very appealing. Hence, it can be exploited to the optimum in ELT. The paper is an attempt to ponder over various high-order critical and creative faculties which will improve if stories are methodically selected. Such selection would certainly help hone the skill unconsciously.

New-Fangled Techniques in Teaching English Language

A.S.Phani Kumari                                                                                               N. Vineela
Asst.Professor in English                                                               Asst.Professor in English
PVP Siddhartha Institute of Technology                                      PVP Siddhartha Institute
Kanuru – Vijayawada – 7                                                                               of Technology

What is the most popular and useful means of communication all over the world? A small child can give the answer for this question. Yes, it is English. It is treated as the lingua-franca of this computer age. “An international language belongs to its users, not to the countries whose national languages have become internationalized” (Edge 1993). English is the mother tongue of 375 million people, Second language of 375 million people and foreign language of 750 million people and occupied second place in the world languages. This clearly shows that the number of L2 speakers has been increasing day-by-day. Some people use English as a second language and some people use it as foreign language. Because of Globalization, because of computer technology, English is placed at the centre of communication. A result of the increase of English is that, “Those who speak English will outnumber first-language speakers, and increasingly, while decide the global future of the language” (Graddol, 1997). So it is the duty of every English teacher to know about the revolutionary changes, modern manifestations, emerging trends in English language. According to many research scholars, many experts in English teaching, there are various emerging trends in English language teaching. This paper tries to enlighten the teachers about emerging trends in English language teaching. They are: 

1.. E-Learning                       
2. Learner-centered teaching 
3. Reflective Practices          
4. Lexicographic Software     
5. Coinages of words             
6. Quality Enhancement        
7. Effectiveness of Academic Programs
8. Activity-based language teaching

ELT in Engineering Colleges

P. Yamini Assistant Professor
                                              Chalapathi Engineering College

  1. Purna Chandra Rao
Assistant Professor
Usha  Rama College of Engineering
Telaprolu, Krishna 

Language teaching is mired in many problems – whether it be at primary, secondary or tertiary. This becomes more riddled, as English language happens to be second language. It is axiomatic to say that language teaching and learning is supposed to help the student express with great lucidity without distancing the element of enjoyment from the learner. But ironically that does not happen as language is considered product-oriented not process-based. This gets further complicated in a system which seeks to quantify one’s knowledge on unscientific lines.

            In this paper, the chief concern is to elucidate the various established norms   in vogue in engineering colleges, which are in the jurisdiction of either Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University or Acharya Nagarjuna University. It is interesting to note that there is a glaring dichotomy between theory and practice- the theory being to hone the four-fold skills of language and practice being to consider the learner in a mechanistic way and to gloss over many pertinent issues. The job becomes onerous as the teacher has to shoulder many responsibilities like imparting soft skills, to attend to administrative work and the other trifling. Deriving aesthetic pleasure from a piece of literature and convey it to the students was long forgotten. Even if a poem is taught, the emphasis is different. The paper is intended to address the concerns of teaching fraternity working in Engineering Colleges and come up with certain solutions to mitigate them.

An Analytical Study on the
Secondary School Teachers of Rural Areas

                                                                                                             Kandula Sudha
                                                                                                      Reseach Scholar (M.Phil)

Based on an empirical study, the paper seeks to find out the contribution of the secondary school teachers in rural areas in promoting oral communication skills. It seeks to focus on the accuracy of teachers’ the pronunciation.  Their views were elicited regarding improvement of correct utterance of sounds and stress. This paper analyses teachers’ knowledge in phonetics and their impact on the speaking habits of the students at the secondary level of education. It also recommends ways to improve teachers’ and students’ communicative competence. The study takes segmental and supra-segmental features of pronunciation into account.


* Smt B.V.Ramana                                                                                   *Dr. C.Pradgna
Assistant Professor                                                                                 Associate Professor
GITAM Institute of Technology                                                                              GITAM Institute of Technology                                                                            GITAM University
GITAM University                                                                        Visakhapatnam - 530045
Visakhapatnam – 530045

One of the prime concerns of today's English language teacher is how to help the learner acquire competence in the usage of language.  The present paper focuses on how the use of literary texts promotes the four basic skills LSRW.  The paper sets out to show that  the creativity of the writer and his emotive use of language provides the reader an aesthetic, intellectual and emotional pleasure.  The paper makes an attempt to show how teaching language through literature can improve one’s range of knowledge at the denotative, connotative and the evaluative level, and how language competency can be enhanced by reducing the influence of one's mother tongue.  Language teaching can be humanized with the incorporation of literature in language teaching.

It is obvious that literature brings about salubrious impact on a learner without his being aware of it and therefore, personal involvement can be optimized as learning happens unconsciously. Moreover, the material is authentic and naturally one is happily attuned to it. It can be inferred that literature can only bring about positive changes by driving away the tedium that many generally associated with language classes as the teachers’ preoccupations are making the students employable! Though this aspect cannot be ruled out , other concerns can only be handled meaningfully if, for instance, classics are introduced in the syllabus and it indeed redeems the class from the present situation.


Pokuluri Suryaprakash

Language is the means of communication of one’s meaning in one’s own way. It is a particular manner of verbal expression.  It is also the means of communication used by animals.  When a writer depicts animals and their communication, he has to maintain the right balance between human characteristics and animal characteristics.  On one hand, the animals must be human enough to give the impression that the situation applies to human beings and that they (the animals) represent different types of human beings; on the other, the animals must be animal-like in their characteristics. A writer, in this way, can give meaning or purpose to his arguments in his writings. George Orwell (1903 – 1950), whose real name was Eric Blair, is successful in finding this balance and in advancing his arguments for saving socialism from communism, in his animal fable Animal Farm, by employing the devices, namely, (i) allegory, (ii) satire, (iii) irony and (iv) diction.

About allegory, it can be said that it is the symbolic representation of one world for another.  In Animal Farm, the animal world is the symbolic representation of the twentieth-century socio-political world.

As regards satire, it is the form in which the novel Animal Farm  (1945) is cast.  The subject of the satire, it is said, is Soviet Russia and contemporary political and social conditions. In the story, Major, an old boar, sees his kind, living under miserable conditions, although they work hard and their owners, who do nothing, enjoying comforts. He asks the animals to fight for their right, that is, freedom.  The only enemy of animals is Man and the only enemy of workers is the entrepreneur.  The novel, in general, is about totalitarianism of any kind.

            As for irony in the novel, it goes, hand in hand with satire. Old Major’s speech before he dies is very much ironical.  No doubt, it is a well-intentioned speech. But, in his words, the reader can see the possibility for the opposite of good life.  His view is that Man is the sole cause of the misery of animals.  Such view is likely to be manipulated for selfish ends because it is an unrealistic view of human nature.  Another example of irony is:  from the start, the animals accept the pigs as their leaders, although it is said that the pigs are never better than other animals.

            Regarding diction in Animal Farm, Orwell carefully chooses his words to describe human beings, animals and their affairs.  The language is so simple that the novel has become the favourite of children.  The tone is that of a beast fable and so it is congenial to children.  The diction is plain and unadorned because the characters are animals and uneducated farmers.

         It can be said with a touch of certainty that learning the nuances of language through literature is a rewarding task. The natural corollary of such a stance gives aesthetic pleasure which helps one be good at the resources of language.



                             P.Madhurima.M.A, M.Ed, M.Phil,  (Ph.D).
                                    Asst. Prof  in English
                                    Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology

The word communication is derived from the Latin term 'communicare’ or 'communico', both of which mean ‘to share’. English language is one of the most prized possessions of man. English is playing prominent role as the national link language for the purpose of inter-state correspondence. It plays a vital role in increasing employment opportunities around the world. It provides access to the information with which individuals can learn and develop net works which are vital in building and maintaining economic skills. The need for English as a language of ‘opportunity’ and ‘development’ has been realized in all spheres of life. So proficiency in English is a mandatory requirement for any professional working in a global business environment.

Communication is always directly associated with the personality of an individual. It is highly recommended to understand the ward much before we start mentoring. Without mentoring we are only transferring information, which is the way behind teaching. Three aspects make an individual communicate effectively, namely, personality, adequate knowledge of the field, and the ability to compose ideas and to express them through non-verbal and verbal communication. The number of technocrats graduating from Indian Universities is very high. All these technocrats need to work in an international scenario with people coming from different nations. This need makes them aware that it is their communication skills and soft skills that play a vital role in getting on well in a given situation. While directly communicating with people at their workplaces and at universities with peer group and professors, students need to use English which can be understood by people coming from any country of the world. Therefore, it is important and imperative that technocrats of India be understood by the rest of the world with which they are likely to communicate. As technical communication may be oral and written, it may involve all the skills of language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. This paper focuses on speaking skills of students pursuing their studies in Engineering Colleges.


Dr G Manjulatha Devi
Professor & Head,
Department of English
Jyothishmathi Institute of Technology & Science

David Wilkins has well observed that “without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” The building of language is constructed by the bricks of words. Language emerges as words. Words with alterations in their forms and shapes and therefore changing the meanings, attribute grandeur to language. If the language is either eulogized or castigated, it is ultimately because of the quality of the words it contains. To know a word is one essential thing but how this knowledge of a word is acquired, is a question that needs a faithful answer. To any person to get a right word to make a right expression is really frustrating. The learner, fundamentally, should acquire complete knowledge of a word, the whole gamut of it. It is, in other words, the possibility of the range it can expand to and within the field of its expansion, the elements that a word consists of.

In the history of a word, grammar is an inseparable section. It elucidates the judicious use and placement of a word in a sentence for its acceptability. Hence, the learner, while learning such a word, will come across a challenging task of making the correct connections, between the form and meaning of word.

Excessive complexity of the lessons which is mainly because of vocabulary is certain to damage the whole interest of students for learning. Teacher’s help to overcome this hindrance is truly desired by the students. It is up to the teacher to choose the right activity that would keep the students physically and mentally occupied.

Judicious estimation of the length of the time to be taken to complete  a lesson and the language items, which can be taught and developed through it, is essential for a teacher before the actual process of teaching –learning sets in. Hence the teacher should contemplate on: the size of the lesson, number of periods required, achievable objectives and attainable goals, language item that can be taught in specific amount of time, accurate and operable plan.

Methodology of Teaching English as a Second Language in India

Research Scholar
Kakatiya University

A method determines what and how much is taught (selection) the order in which it is taught (grading) and how the meaning and from are conveyed (presentation) and what is done to make the use of the language unconscious) repetition.

The role of English in India has undergone a change in the course of time and that today a large number of young students need the basic skills of English as a language. In this contact there is a need to adopt new perspectives, approaches and methods to the teaching of English as a second language in the Indian situation.

            The teacher of English has to organize the teaching materials and choose a method of teaching. According to Edward Authony, “Method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material, no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon the selected approach. That is, a method determines the way how language is presented in the classroom.” The paper examines critically the  efficacies and fallacies of various methods in vogue.


The Different Dimensions of Non-verbal Communication

                                                      Lecturer, M&H Dept.,
                                                      RVR&JC College of Engg,

Communication takes various forms, one of which is oral or speech. However when people speak they normally do not confine themselves to mere emission of words.  Research has shown that 35% of the messages are carried verbally while 65 % are conveyed non verbally. Communication consists of much more than just spoken language. It includes many physical components of communication such as various postures, gestures etc. Our bodies are ambassadors of our inner self; they convey more than our tongues do. We can guard our tongues, but not so easily shut off our body language. The more we understand it and its effects on others; the better will be our communication with others we encounter during the day. The present paper analyses the different dimensions of body language and how they contribute for effective communication.


Dr. R. Poli Reddy
M.A. L.LB., M. Phil., Ph.D.,
      S.V.Arts & Science College
                Giddalur, Prakasam

In the computerized advanced age, English is learnt for the purpose of developing communication skills rather than appreciation  for language and literature.   The methods of English language  teaching will enable learners to acquire language efficiency . They  are involved with selection and gradation of materials. Generally a method includes what to teach, how to teach and when to teach are the basic questions which are essential to teaching methodology. A method includes four components-selection, gradation, presentation and repetition. A method fulfills the aims of teaching a language.  It relates to the available conditions and facilities in the school or college. A method is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language materials on the basis of selected approach.  There are several methods of language teaching through which languages are taught across the world. D. Vasundhara and K. Katyayani have observed that “Different approaches have come into existence in reaction to the inadequacies of the earlier approaches. Some approaches have focused on using the language to speak and to understand it while others have focused on analyzing it with grammatical rules. The paper reviews the effectiveness of some popular methods and sets out to reason out their practical utility in ELT.


I. A.  Pani
DA Govt. Polytechnic,
Ongole-523 002. 

Gone are the days when the English teachers used to enter the classroom and launch the exhibition of their oratorical skills in order to fill the students with awe and admiration. With the entry of newer methods of teaching English, teacher-centered methods of ELT have died a natural death.  With the advent of CLT, the teacher-centered ELT stands deconstructed.  The center stage occupied so far by the teacher is vacated only to be occupied by the student. In keeping with the changing scenario in ELT, Polytechnics of Andhra Pradesh under the administrative control of the Department of Technical Education have adopted the newer methodology and have developed a text of their own to suit the new methods of ELT.   

The Research Question (posed and probed by the paper) & Methodology:

Against the backdrop of the introduction, the paper attempts to probe into the paper presenter's experience of having taught as per old methodology which only left an aftertaste of disappointment with its failure to instill spoken/writing skills in the students and the pleasant experience of seeing the newer methodology bearing the desired fruit.  In other words, the newer method of CLT actively involves the students in the process of teaching-learning process and to a large extent achieves the goal of enabling the students with the desired linguistic skills.  The methodology adopted is the comparative scrutiny of the old teaching methods and the new CLT technique as well as a comparison of old and new textbooks.

Hypothetical Outcome:

The paper through empirical verification will endorse the need of adopting CLT technique in the English classroom to more efficiently equip the students with the four-fold skill set of LSRW.




Ch.V.S.Sankara Rao
Associate Professor
Vignan University

Communicating clearly is an essential business skill. The best ideas in the world can only be transformed into realities when they are shared and understood. Only training the learners to write by using simple techniques can help acquire proficiency. Prospective engineers, among others, should first be taught to think creatively in order to introduce creative ideas in their writing and intelligent use of ideas, in turn, can make writing interesting, innovative and insightful.

Any learner who wants to writer well and write better should be asked to construct a story and build it brick by brick using varied phrases and vocabulary. They should also learn to present it in lucid and precise manner. Apart from writing creatively their writing should also be natural and effective. Any event or incident can provide and the learner gains insight in writing skills. The students should encourage practicing writing and the teacher should constantly contribute innovative ideas.

An accomplished writer is born when he practices and classroom. implements his creative abilities that have been all along refined in the In order to introduce creative ideas for teaching writing and enhance writing skill the student should develop good thinking, observation power and thereby improve his/her mastery over the language. Good writing can be achieved only when ideas are clearly worded and thoughts are properly organized. This paper outlines the essential features of good writing and the ways to nurture it.

Integrating Speaking and Written Skills

V. Saravanan
Lecturer in English
Velammal Engineering College

In the present global scenario, English language has gained prominence as an international medium of communication.  This is due to the simplicity and user friendliness of the language.  Success mainly depends on the proficiency with which one can handle the language. Every individual needs to be well equipped with the tools to communicate effectively, whether it is on the personal front, or at work. In fact, according to the management gurus, being a good communicator is half the battle won.    Fluency in oral skill acts as a storehouse of wisdom, a propeller for technical advancement and a telescope to view the new vision of the future world.  Oral skills can be enhanced by listening to the native speakers, movies and the standard world news bulletin. Teaching oral skills to the learners is a Herculean task.  To bring the learners to the level of the native speakers involves tremendous ingenuity on the part of the trainers. 

Communicating through writing is more concrete than verbal communications, with less room for error and even less room for mistakes. This presents written communicators with new challenges, including spelling, grammar, punctuation, even writing style and actual wording.  Written skill demands expertise in language and style. Objectivity can be achieved through distinctive technical writing. This demands a lot of time and energy for perfection and clarity.  A combination of oral and written skills is expected of every competent professional in the present technical milieu. 

Associate Professor
Amara Institute of Engineering & Technology

Communication skills play a key role in this corporate society. Communication is not simply confined to writing, reading and speaking skills but it also involves one’s ability to listen carefully so as to grasp the meaning and to respond in turn with apt words and clarity of pronunciation. Good communication skills are essential for a professional student.  To achieve good communication skills, the four skills of reading, writing, speaking and listening have to be practiced. To get efficiency in these four skills the language laboratory is needed. It plays an important role in the language learning process. It is a technological aid for learning. It has a number of advanced facilities that can help a student to learn language with proficiency to communicate. It provides students with the technical tools to get the best samples of pronunciation of the language. The laboratory collection is designed to assist learners in the acquisition and maintenance of oral and written proficiency and cultural awareness. It has many uses. Hence, the language laboratory has become the imperative to sharpen one’s repertoire of skills in language.

Reader in English
VRS Degree College
V.N.Palli, Kadapa

With the impact of globalization many changes have come in the field of Education, particularly, in English language teaching.  Today, in many parts of the world, especially, in India, there is a great demand for English as language of international communication, of Business and Commerce, and of higher education.  The paper tells us how English language is seen as a means of attaining  scientific and technical knowledge, and also as medium of  Communication between people who may not otherwise be able to speak to each other.
            This paper discusses efforts made by teachers to improve English language studies in India.  It is true that English is the language of development.  It serves not only as a common educational medium, but as an international lingua franca. The paper also focuses the benefits of English language studies in India as an international language, as a language of window to the world, as a library language and finally English as a link language.  It also tells us how English as a means of international communication and acceptable language to others has served its purpose. The paper also discusses the formidable task of the English teachers in developing English studies and English language teaching in India.    


K Balamurugan                                                                                       
Dr S Thirunavukkarasu                                                            

Error analysis is a tool in the hands of a teacher that facilitates remedial teaching. Error analysis helps the teacher to enrich his method of teaching .The teacher can understand the problem faced by the students and he can go in for remedial measures so that the students do better in ensuring attempts. The behaviorists warn teacher against allowing the learners to practice their mistakes.

            Their mistakes should be corrected and the correction should not be delayed or postponed for the fear of fossilization. The errors committed by a group of students can be collected and they can be categorized. The reason for these errors can be thought over. Finally a solution for remedial work can be chalked out. This research paper tries to bring out the status of the higher secondary students’ language ability and translating skill. It is an outcome of the result of an experimental work conducted with a view to developing the learner’s translating ability.


Syed Mujahid      
Lecturer in English
S V University P.G.Centre   
Kavali – 524201
Nellore Dt. 

With the Advent of Information technology there is a rapid change in the world. Even the other technologies like Bio-technology and Bio-informatics are also stepping ahead and are producing the means to solve difficult problems. Perhaps these are some of the reasons that made a man to think in term of globalization. There arose the English language as a major means of communication. So for every citizen of the 21st century the ability to learn the English language effectively has become a necessary qualification for success. As a result the English teacher and the classroom have to undergo lot of change. The teacher may have to take the help of Audio Visual Aids such as projector, tape recorder, record player, linguaphone, overhead projector, epidiascope, and computer etc and use them effectively in the classroom. The reason for this is that the Audio Visual aids play a unique role in the teaching of a foreign language like English which is considered to be the difficult language by many learners. They also make the learning easy and interesting as the learners view the objects directly and keep them in their minds for a long time. They may also motivate the learners to a considerable extent. Besides this the teacher has to think of ways and means as per the needs and requirements of the learners. In the present paper a study is made on the role and importance of Audio Visual Aids in the ELT Classroom. The paper also lays stress on how with the help of those teaching aids one can make English language teaching meaningful and effective.     


Associate Professor
Dept. of English,
Institute of Technology and Management

A teacher is a person who imparts knowledge or skill through example or instruction while learning, and the person who creates an environment in which someone can come to know something acquire knowledge or gain some thing is called a facilitator. In order to facilitate students’ learning several things need to occur. They are listed out in the following:

1. Assessing the Students: This aspect is conducted in a number of areas will develop as the teacher builds rapport with the students. It can be seen as ‘getting to know’ the students. Some aspects to be assessed are; the student’s willingness and ability to learn are key to developing learning opportunities that will and engaged.

2. Planning the Learning: After assessing students, the teacher is supposed to plan learning opportunities. Once the learning outcomes have been determined the teacher plans the unit outline and individual lessons. In the classroom the teacher will work as co-learners to critique socially important issues such as the nature of work, while providing the students with work

3. Implementing  the Plan: This will include the classroom management and the teaching strategies that will cater for the varied learning styles of the students. It will also include the emotional climate of the classroom and the quality of the interaction between the students and teachers. 

4. Evaluating  the Process: The teacher as facilitator will revise their student assessments. After the completion of a classroom session there will be an assessment of learning that has taken place and this will inform following teaching.

The role of the teacher is diverse and has several orientations. One important aspect is that of facilitator of student learning. The facilitator attempts to provide circumstances that will enable students with the learning opportunities and construct for themselves their understanding and skills. This role will interact with those of teacher as learner, colleague and         community partner.

An Analytical Study of Language Laboratory in
Arts and Science Colleges

R. Bhagya Lakshmi 
Lecturer in English
Dr Jaya Pradamba Degree College, Guntur   

The object of presenting the paper is to make the lectures aware of a   plethora of problems that have set in with the establishment of language labs. Actually they are intended to create user-friendly atmosphere for the student so that he can pace his learning and concentrate on the aspects he is lagging behind when it comes to listening and speaking. Theoretically speaking, everything seems to be perfectly well. In language lab the students are supposed to go through audio files and record their responses and the teacher, to monitor them.

             The physical conditions in the lab like acoustics, the seating plan are not proper in many labs in the jurisdiction of Acharya Nagarjuna University. Most importantly it has been found out that the lecturers do not bother about the prescribed textbooks. Some lecturers they have got their own short-cut methods. Further, it was found there were glaring variations related to the ratio between the theory and the practical between one college and the other as there are no norms stipulated by the university. Is it proper to conduct theory hours in the lab?  It is doubted whether language lab is really promoting students proficiency? Or is it a kind of time pass an excuse to while away time? It is felt that the teachers’ console can be helpful in making student more dynamic. The paper seeks to analyze the problems in language laboratories.

THE ROLE OF TEACHER IN THE LANGUAGE LAB                                                             

Sri Balaji Institute of Technology
Narasannapet, Warangal

The language lab has been introduced in almost all graduate courses. It is undoubtedly a useful source provided the teacher acts as active and emotional mentor. The teacher has to adopt novel techniques and methodologies for the effectiveness of the lab. The teacher should always be receptive to adopt new technologies or methods to make the teaching process effective it is clear that the computer cannot supplant the teacher .the role of the language teacher has been changed and they should transform themselves to meet challenge sat the global level.

Global phenomena have led to many changes all over the world. The most important aspect is to have lingua franca. It is essential to learn and use Standard English language. The conventional approach with traditional grammar may not help the present generation since it is the language, and the self-learning methods and the most radical mode-the language lab.

The present scenario of language has taken an innovative mode of computerized or multimedia learning. Almost all graduate courses in India have set up language labs for the acquisition of English language obviously it is a useful resource to the learners as they are exposed to the original accent through software. Software technologies are available in plenty on language learning, accent, phonetics vocabulary and soft skills.

The teacher should always be innovative and be receptive to adopt new technologies or methods to make the teaching process effective. It is clear that the computer cannot supplant the teacher. The role of the language teacher has been changed and they should transform themselves to meet challenges at the global level. The paper seeks to demonstrate certain important tasks that can be assigned in language labs.




Man has been using language as tool of communication for centuries. It plays an important role in every aspect of life. Language learning process entails the skills listening, speaking, reading and writing. Spoken skill exhibits one’s etiquette, inner feelings and persuasive powers of a person. These qualities are the pre-requisites of an individual who wish to excel in any organization.  In the engineering colleges, on-campus requirement process consists three or four stages. 1. Aptitude Test, 2.Technical Interview, 3. Group Discussion, 4. HR Interview. A majority of the tests examines students’ virtuosity in spoken skills. During the four stages the candidate’s technical knowledge, analytical and verbal reasoning, critical thinking, communication and group skills are assessed and at each stage, the unsuccessful candidates are filtered out. It is a matter of grave concern to say that most of the students who fare badly belong to rural areas. Given their sincerity, commitment, and perseverance, it is a mind-boggling thing to devise ways to ensure their success.

According to NASSCOM (National Association of Software Services Company), President, Kiran Kartik only 25% of technical graduates are employable in the outsourcing industry because of lack of ability to speak or write well in English, especially in the engineering students belonging to rural areas. Most students are not, to use the cliché, ‘industry ready’ because they lack communication skills. So the educational institutions should impart skills which guarantee employability to the rural students. They should focus on the problems in the area of speaking. Engineering colleges should recruit suitable trainers to train up engineering students in consonance with the requirements of industry. Trainers should throw light upon problems like fear of speaking in English, shyness, difficulty in pronunciation.


T.M. BHASKAR,                                                                              T. ARUNA KUMAR
M.A., M.Ed., M.Phil.,                                                                                                            M.A., M.Phil., B.Ed.,
PGDCE, PGDFE, PGDELT, Ph.D.                                                                                       PGDTE, PGDCE., Ph.D.,
Lecturer in English                                                                              Lecturer in English

In the wake of globalization, English language is one of the most prized possessions of man. It acts as a repository of wisdom. It has become a fertile ground which yields a rich crop for the people who are gifted with effective communicative skills. It has exercised a great influence over the past two centuries in shaping the political, social, economic, intellectual and cultural life of India and is still serving as a dynamic instrument of social change. English language is a propeller for the advancement of knowledge and a telescope to view the vision of the future. Globalization, demographic trends and economic imperatives have enlarged the role of English and, therefore, English language teaching to include in particular business, media and corporate communication. Its a historical accident that led to English taking deep roots in India. It continues to be the medium of instruction in colleges and universities, and is also the language of administration. The importance of English has been fully realized by the administrators and educationists of India. In the multi-lingual countries like India English became a unifying force and helped the freedom fighters propagate the ideas of Nationalism and self-rule. Not only has English enriched the languages of India but it has also lent itself to be the medium of creative expression for some of the writers of India. Today, the compulsions of teaching and learning English are no longer merely political but scientific and technological. Today English has entered the fabric of India's culture.

The government of India is conscious of the imperative need for strengthening the teaching and learning of English in India and has appointed study groups from time to time. These commissions have made a number of recommendations on policies and programmes, syllabi, methods and materials. The Regional institutes of English and the EFLU, (Formerly central institute of English and foreign languages) too have made their contributions. All the same no tangible success has so far been achieved in the implementation of the policies and the programmes recommended by the Study groups. Umpteen reasons are there like Shortage of well-trained, fully qualified teachers of English in schools and colleges.


Assistant Professor of English,
Narasaraopeta Engg. College,

Here is a saying that The future destiny of a country is being shaped with in the four walls of class room”. So class room is considered as a learning place of a student. Class room is the one which shapes the students attitude. One way or the other we can say class room is a temple or sanctuary for the students. As per the above saying the student’s behavior attitude of a student or student’s is moulded within the four walls of a class room. So we are to shape or mould the student’s educational career. Majority of the student’s educational career remains in the class room learning process. In olden days learning process started at the ashrams, temples, Mosques etc. through these places.

For all the above learning process is dealt by the teacher alone. From ancient to modern, from old to present time. The teacher is considered as the head of the class room. Teacher is the one who shapes the students educational career by imparting the knowledge to the students. He is considered as the heart of the class. In the words of a philosopher says that the merinos compass is the main eye of the ship so as to the teacher is the main eye of the class room.

The teacher is considered as a mentor, adviser, guide, philosopher, friend and counselor etc. He has to deal not only subject matter in the class room but also he has to guide the students when needed .He has to lead the students in a proper way then only the teachers role in the class room will be successful in the educational sector.

The Place of Grammar in English Communication

V.V.Subba Rao                                                         D.Subba Rao            
Associate Professor                                                     Associate Professor
Chalapathi Institute of Technology,                           Malineni Lakshmaiah Women’s Engg. College Mothadaka.                                      Pulladigunta.

The above paper that I would like to present is one of the features of English Language Communication Skills. Communication is meaning-based in which the most immediate need is to be able to refer to a core of basic reference or things in the real world.  It is to be able to name things, states, events, attributes using the grammar he or she knows.  In addition, one must be able to link words together so as to make propositions.  Without grammatical influence, communication is not conventional and not traditional-bound.  Since it is necessary for man to imbibe the conventions of English speech and writing, as well as traditions of human organization.

            Grammar is inevitable for good interaction or communication.  It is the use of language to keep open the channels of communication between people and to establish suitable rapport. Communication is always supposed to be appropriate grammatical structure. In all the communicative forms, grammar must take into account the relationship between the speaker and the listener, and selection of language, its style, tone according to the age, rank, status of the participants in the communicative event.  Well structured communication, may be spoken or written, is grammatical.

The Effective Way to Impart Grammar & to Enrich  Students’Vocabulary

                                                                               Ramanadham Ramesh Babu
                                                                               Asst. Prof of English
                                                                               Nalla Malla Reddy Engg. College,

Just because students take a deep displeasure at Grammar, we, as advanced learners, as teachers, cannot deny this great advantage to our students. We should explain them the difference of meaning that takes place in the use of the simple pronouns- I & me- as in the sentences-
1.      He likes her more than me.
2.      He likes her more than I.

   The former sentence means - “he likes her more than what he likes me.”The latter indicates- “he likes her more than what I like her”- (hence there is a hint that it is better for her to marry him than me).When there is such a huge difference in the simple pronouns- I & me- then what sort of a danger lurking in the improper sentences like-
“sir, pl. grant me three days casual leave since I am planning to leave for native place to sell my property along with my wife.” -   a leave application of an employee of reputed software company.
   Unless a beginner realizes that a simple word like ‘well’ has different parts of speech, he ends up in saying –“ I am in well and I hope that you are also in the well.” If our students do not distinguish different shades of meanings for a particular word, they cannot understand the subtle undertones when a newspaper reports, “Sasi Tharoor’s ‘external affairs’ caused his cabinet berth’. In this paper, I would like to focus on the interesting way of teaching functional Grammar as well as vocabulary with the medium of print media as it uses varied expressions.

Role of Soft Skills in Weeding out Students’ Fear of
Oral communication in Group Discussion

M.Madhu Sudhan Rao (Ph.D)
Assistant Professor of English,
MVR College of Engineering & Technology
Paritala, Vijayawada

            This paper focuses on the issues encountered by the students of MVR College of Engineering & Technology, affiliated to Acarya Nagarjuna Univesity. They are pursuing 2/4 B.Tech in CSE branch. They are predominantly from rural background. Initially, they were inadequate in expression, presentation, confidence and speaking in English at the end of 2nd year I semester. They were very shy and felt guilty to speak in English. They had always feared in the mind that they would commit mistakes and friends would laugh at them. This problem was identified and many JAM rounds were arranged to them. They were asked to give paper presentations on the topics they liked. However the result was very negligible by the semester ending.

            Keeping in view the 2nd year II semester Soft Skills syllabus in mind, a schedule was sorted out for their progress. In the end the 50 students who belong to CSE branch could fare better. However, they still need improvement. The time span that this experiment covered was four months.

            There are six modules prescribed for 2/4 B.Tech II semester CSE students. Nonverbal Communication, Written Communication, Emotional Intelligence and Self Esteem, Employability, Life Skills and People Skills are the modules. Fifty students were divided into two batches, each batch consisting of 25 students. Every week, three hours were allotted to train them. The schedule went for 15 weeks. They were trained in seventeen aspects like Nonverbal Communication, Confidence Building, Self Awareness, Stress Management, Empathy etc.

            As most of the students possess fairly poor receptive skills, it took much time to improve them. In January concentration was laid on improving their Confidence, Motivation Levels, Desire to Learn, Self Awareness, and Self Control. They were showed a few videos that were downloaded from They were given tips on how to know their strengths and limitations. In confidence building presentation, guidelines on planning in advance and thinking positively were given. It was followed by a video to inspire them and motivate them; they were trained to set up short term goals and long term goals in motivation classes. Further they were trained on methods finishing what they begin. While training them in improving their Desire to learn, they were told that they should learn round the clock as change is the law of life.

Pedagogical Techniques for Managing ESL Classes

Al- Ameer College of Engg. &IT

Pedagogy is the art, ability, practice, dynamic, science and the theory of teaching or educating people. But it should never be standardized or definite. It should transform and change shape as our educational boundaries continue to be re-drawn.

            Teaching is generally viewed by many as just another activity that teachers do in the classroom with students. Many people fail to perceive the ongoing planning and scheduling, the reflections and manifestations and the analytical and methodological processes that a teacher has to execute everyday before walking into her classroom.

            Therefore, it is essentially important for a teacher to guide and facilitate students using various pedagogical approaches and methods in activating their own learning and thinking skills while at the same time taking into consideration their background knowledge, environment, and their own learning objectives.

            This paper deals with the various pedagogical techniques and approaches a teacher has to introduce in ESL classrooms.

Mastering Speaking Skills

Gouda Sudhakar
Asst. Prof. of English
Balaji Institute of Engineering & Sciences
LNarasampet, Warangal

The paper stresses how the speaking skill can be mastered through Task Based Language teaching (TBLT) is a viable contemporary option in language pedagogy. The activities include role play, JAM speech, IC speech, describing a person/thing/festival, giving directions, debate, group discussion, self-introduction, mock-interiviews, language games etc., The paper suggests some innovative tasks that can be used in ELT. It can be said that these tasks are very useful to help the students to get over many “stumbling blocks’’ they encounter while switching over to foreign language.


Dr. K.Suneetha Reddy, M.A; M.Phil; Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities
Priyadarshini College of Engineering & Technology
Nellore, AP

Man has been using language as a tool of communication for centuries. Language means different things to different people.  To an Anthropologist it is a form of cultural behavior, whereas to a sociologist it is a vehicle of communication between members of a social group.  Students of literature may consider it an artistic medium, while those of philosophy may consider it a means to interpret human experience.  A virtuous man may use it to advance the truth whereas a crook may use it to actually hide it.  Patanjali, the ancient linguist of India, considered it  a human expression uttered out by speech organs.  It has enabled him to interact with the environment and to regulate his social behavior.  The Encyclopedia Britannica defines language as a “system of conventional spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, communicate”.

Communication, which is a key part in everyone’s life, has become the life blood of any group or organization.  Research has shown that 70 to 80% of the total working time of a professional is spent on communication.  As man progressed and invented printing press, revolution in the process of communication brought out a drastic leap in written words.  Similarly, advancement in technology like recording of spoken words and its transmission, irrespective of time and distance, added new dimensions to the world of communications.  Social advancement has to be matched with the development of efficient techniques in communication to sustain the tempo of growth.  .  “Information is Power” is yesterday’s quote.  “Inform the information in the Right way is today’s one.  “Survival of the fittest” is yesterday’s quote, “Survival of the Fastest” is today’s one. 
This paper seeks to identify the difficulties encountered in the teaching of communicative English for rural engineering students.  This paper also makes an attempt to suggest possible ways to mitigate them.


E. Sudershan
Hindu College

With the pioneering initiative of Andhra Pradesh Government, Jawahar Knowledge Centres were instituted across the state to spruce up students’ soft skills so as to ensure their employability. The initiative heralded radical changes in ELT and paved for students’ success in various companies in general and software and BPO industries in particular. The centres are run with all sorts of assistance from AP Ministry for State Higher Education.

         My chief engagement in the paper is three-fold: to specify the inputs given by the trained personnel to the mentors of JKC; to elaborate on the changes that blow over in ELT in JKC centres as a consequence and finally to focus on the learning ambience where teaching and learning is a joyous activity. The CLT approach in the main brings about much vigour and verve in the classrooms. It can be inferred that teaching and learning is no longer cumbersome as students find it very beneficial to their careers and lecturers relish the extra burden as they have a sense of fulfillment.